Publisher: Instytut Europy Środkowej
ISSN: 2657-6996
  • Beata Surmacz
  • Tomasz Stępniewski
  • Agnieszka Zajdel
  • Aleksandra Kuczyńska-Zonik
  • Jakub Olchowski
  • Konrad Pawłowski
  • Agata Tatarenko

IEŚ Commentaries

Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

IES Commentaries 846
| Marlena Gołębiowska - Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

Preparations for the Three Seas Initiative Bucharest summit: 3SI countries in response to Russian aggression in Ukraine

On September 6-7, 2023, Romania will host a summit of the Three Seas Initiative (3SI) which, for the second time, will be against the background of the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian war. Despite settling relations between 3SI and Ukraine during last year’s summit in Riga, [some] 3SI countries do not present a unified stance towards Russian aggression. Hungary has exhibited the most...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 829
- Baltic Team

Croatia plans to build a regional gas hub

Croatia is taking active steps to increase its participation in ensuring the energy security of Central European countries. A key tool will be the expansion of the LNG terminal on Krk Island, which is expected to eventually supply natural gas to many countries in the region from alternative sources to Russia. Expansion of the terminal and natural gas pipelines is extremely...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 808
- Baltic Team

Bulgaria considers returning to construction of Burgas-Alexandroupoli pipeline

Bulgaria is considering a return to the construction of the Burgas-Alexandroupoli pipeline, which would allow greater diversification of crude oil supplies to the Burgas refinery. The project was initiated as early as 1993, at which time it was intended to increase exports of Russian crude oil to international markets. The ongoing Russian-Ukrainian war and sanctions imposed on the...

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Balkan Team, Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

IEŚ Commentaries 807
| Jan Muś | Michał Paszkowski - Balkan Team, Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

Serbia-Hungary pipeline: a new chapter in energy cooperation

Serbia has been taking active steps for several months to diversify the sources and directions of crude oil supplies to the country’s only operating refinery in Panchevo. Due to sanctions imposed on Russia, the plant is currently unable to import crude oil from that country. However, the government in Belgrade is in favor of building a pipeline linking Serbia and...

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Baltic Team

Komentarze IEŚ 753
- Baltic Team

Kazakhstan: questionable source of crude oil supply for Central European refineries

The entry into force on December 5, 2022 of European Union sanctions against Russia, which prevent the import of crude oil from that country by sea, has forced refiners in Europe, including those in Central Europe, to seek alternative grades, including from Kazakhstan. On one hand refineries in Germany are counting on crude oil supplies from that country, but the direction of...

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