Edition: Lublin 2012
Over the last 20 years the Caucasian region has been witnessing unprecedented migratory flows, much more intense than in other post-Soviet locations. Exceptionally high people mobility that resulted from ethnic conflicts has turned Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia (to a lesser extent) into ethnically homogenous states with nationalistic internal policies pursued. The same relates to the republics of Russian Northern Caucasus while Stavropol and Krasnodar regions being transformed into multi-ethnic societies with high level of emigration and growing xenophobia. Although the mass economic emigration from Caucasus was halted, a complex system of circular labour emigration has evolved instead. This trend is likely to continue unless Russia survives economic downturn. After the second Chechen war and the 2008 Russian-Georgian war, ethnically motivated exile has appeared once again. In contrast to the previous refugee waves, the last two were to a great extent directed towards the EU states.