The region of Central Asia is usually identified with five post-Soviet republics, now independent states: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. However, it seems that if one bears in mind all the implications of this fact, the most proper way to approach it is not in the context of contemporary borders, external or internal, but rather by taking into consideration all the conditions which stem from the complex history of this part of the continent. From this point of view, the region of Central Asia should be regarded within a much wider scope than just that of the said five states. The contemporary border lines are the outcome of a relatively recent decisions connected with the implementation of the Soviet ethnic policy after the USRR was constituted in the 1920’s and 1930’s, and it is difficult to treat them as completely stable and representing any real internal bonds, ethnic, economic or social. It is likely that the shapes of the border lines between those five countries are not yet final and that they may be altered in the future. These countries are surrounded with a kind of buffer zone, so it is safe to assume that, in reality, the region of Central Asia spreads much further. When considering the issue of ethnoreligious conditions of the Central Asia’s security, we shall concentrate on those five post-Soviet republics, bearing in mind that it requires a rather broad look, including all the regional factors.