Edition: Lublin 2015
The Polish military organisation Polska Organizacja Wojskowa (POW) was planning a political takeover in Lithuania with the aim to form a pro-Polish government and then make a federation with Poland. The POW members were tried by the Lithuanian army court on December 11-24, 1920. At that time, the functioning penal code was that of the Russian Empire of the year 1903. The POW members were accused of an attempt to overthrow the existing system of government, high treason and revolt. In court, both the defendants and their defenders (among the latter was a highly-qualified barrister Adolfas Grajevskis) stressed two important aspects: first, they had been fighting for independent historical Lithuania; second, they were not against independent Lithuania but against its pro-German government. Eight people found guilty got life sentence; others were sentenced to imprisonment for different periods of time. The first appeals of the sentenced POW members were written in February 1921. At the end of 1922, when the Western countries recognised Lithuania de jure, the majority of the convicts were released.