Edition: Lublin 2015
The article presents the history of the Polish-Lithuanian relations in the United States at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. A few aspects have been included, related to acquiring the national identity by both ethnic groups. The development of nationalisms, sharpened by ethnic conflicts, is characteristic for this period in Europe. Some of these conflicts were transferred overseas and played a decisive role in the strengthening of the identities of European immigrants from East-Central Europe. In the article, an emphasis is put on the attitude of the leading Polish national organisation, Polish National Alliance, towards the Lithuanians and their aspirations for independence. The evolution in the attitude of the authorities of this organisation towards Lithuanian organisations as well as the attempts to start a political cooperation directed against Russia have been analysed. The aspirations of both nations, aimed at the creation of an autonomous national community, developed parallel to the assimilation processes. They reflected essential changes in the social and political life of ethnic groups from East-Central Europe.