Drones in War: The Controversies Surrounding the United States’ Expanded Use of Drones and the European Union’s Disengagement

and

ORCID: Emanuel G. Boussios:

ORCID: Anna Visvizi: 0000-0003-3240-3771

Pages: 123-145

Edition: Lublin 2017

DOI: --

Citation method: E.G. Boussios, A. Visvizi, ‘Drones in War: The Controversies Surrounding the United States’ Expanded Use of Drones and the European Union’s Disengagement’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2017, pp. 123-145.

Abstract: The administration of President Donald Trump has embarked on a mission to redefine the guidelines for the deployment of drones, thereby altering significantly the policy set by his predecessor. Though early in Trump’s presidency, his administration has failed to establish a clear doctrine on the use of drones for military use. By creating such a doctrine, the United States (US) as a military behemoth would have the opportunity to set the terms of the debate and create the necessary international attention and cooperation on establishing universal guidelines on drone warfare. Other major powers, most notably the European Union (EU), have lagged the US on this issue. By reference to the lessons drawn from the US engagement with armed drones, this paper sheds light on key issues that will inform the debate on the international armed drone use regime. It then queries the prospects of the EU and its member states joining the efforts geared toward establishing internationally recognized armed drone use regime. Recommendations on how the US and the EU could collaborate in this domain follow.

Bibliography:

Agerholm, H., ‘Donald Trump gives CIA power to carry out its own drone strikes’, The Independent, March 14, 2017, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/donald-trump-cia-power-drone-strikes-militarya7628561.html [2017-07-07].
Airbus, ‘Zephyr, the High Altitude Pseudo-Satellite’, Portfolio, 2016, http://defence.airbus.com/portfolio/uav/zephyr/ [2017-09-17].
Barbe, E., Johansson-Nogués, E., ‘The EU as a Modest “Force for Good”’: The European Neighbourhood Policy, International Affairs, Vol. 84, No. 1, 2008, pp. 81-96.
Center for the Study of the Drone, ‘Drone Spending in the FY17 Defense Budget’, Features, February 15, 2016, Bard College Center for the Study of the Drone, http://dronecenter.bard.edu/drone-spending-in-the-fy17-defense-budget/ [2017-09-17].
Chappelle, W., Goodman, T., Reardon, L., Thompson, W., ‘An analysis of posttraumatic stress symptoms in United States Air Force drone operators’, U.S. Air Force Research, 46, 2014, U.S. Department of Defence, http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1045&context=usafresearch [2017-09-17].
Chow, D., ‘Drone Wars: Pilots Reveal Debilitating Stress Beyond Virtual Battlefield’, Livescience, November 5, 2013 http://www.livescience.com/40959-military-drone-war-psychology.html [2017-09-17].
Council of the European Union, ‘Implementation Plan on Security and Defence’, Note, November 16, 2016, Brussels, 14 November 2016 (OR. en) 14392/16, https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/eugs_implementation_plan_st14392.en16_0.pdf [2017-09-10].
de Luce, D., ‘Obama’s Drone Policy Gets an “F”’, Foreign Policy, February 23, 2016, http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/02/23/obamas-drone-policy-getsan-f/ [2017-09-17].
Diamond, Ch.,‘Global drone market expected to surpass $22B by 2022’, May 3, 2017, Defense News, https://www.defensenews.com/air/2017/05/03/global-drone-market-expected-to-surpass-22b-by-2022/ [2017-09-17].
EP, ‘European Parliament resolution of 27 February 2014 on the use of armed drones’, Resolution 2014/2567(RSP), Strasbourg, February 27, 2014, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P7-TA-2014-0172+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN [2017-09-17].
EP, ‘Towards an EU common position on the use of armed drones’, BRIEFING AND WORKSHOP, European Parliament, 2017, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/578032/EXPO_STU(2017)578032_EN.pdf [2017-08-18].
EUR-Lex, ‘The EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy’, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM:ai0026 [2017-09-03].
European Commission, ‘A European Defence Fund: €5.5 billion per year to boost Europe’s defence capabilities’, Press release, Brussels, June 7, 2017, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1508_en.htm [2017-08-18].
European Commission, ‘Commission debates future of European defence’, Press release, May 24, 2017, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1427_en.htm [2017-08-18].
European Commission, ‘European Defence Action Plan’, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Brussels, 30.11.2016, COM(2016) 950 final.
Finnegan, Ph., ‘UAV Production Will Total $93 Billion’, August 19, 2015, Teal Group Corporation, http://tealgroup.com/index.php/teal-group-newsmedia/item/press-release-uav-production-will-total-93-billion [2017-09-17].
Franke, U.E., ‘A European approach to military drones and artificial intelligence’, ECFR Essay, June 23, 2017, http://www.ecfr.eu/article/essay_a_european_approach_to_military_drones_and_artificial_intelligence[2017-09-15].
Henckaerts, J., Doswald-Beck, L., Customary International Humanitarian Law: Rules, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Hennigan, W.J., ‘A fast growing club: Countries that use drones for killing by remote control’, Los Angeles Times, February 23, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/world/africa/la-fg-drone-proliferation-2-20160222-story.html [2017-09-17].
Hsu, J., ‘China Profits as US Hesitates on Selling Armed Drones’, Discover Magazine, June 30, 2017, http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/lovesickcyborg/2017/06/30/china-profits-us-hesitates-selling-armed-drones/#.WZmg_4-cEiR [2017-08-20].
Juul, M., ‘Civil drones in the European Union’, EPRS Briefing, October 2015, European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2015/571305/EPRS_BRI(2015)571305_EN.pdf [2017-08-18].
Keck, Z., ‘China Is Building 42,000 Military Drones: Should America Worry?’, National Interest, May 10, 2015, http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/china-building-42000-military-drones-should-america-worry-12856 [2017-09-17].
Khan, A., ‘As Drone Use Surges, Pilots Report High Stress Levels’, PBS, December 19, 2011, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/afghanistan-pakistan/kill-capture/as-drone-use-surges-pilots-report-high-stress-levels/[2017-09-17].
Linebaugh, H., ‘I worked on the US drone program. The public should know what really goes on’, The Guardian, December 29, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/29/drones-us-military [2017-09-17].
Major, C., ‘Credible EU Defense Means Rethinking Sovereignty’, Strategic Europe, Carnegie Council, June 15, 2017, http://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/71260 [2017-08-18].
Manners, I., ‘Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms?’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 40, Issue 2, 2002, pp. 235–258.
Oliveira Martins, B., Backhaus, B., ‘Why and how the EU should act on armed drones’, Global Affairs, Vol. 1, Issue 3, 2015, pp. 259-267.
Pejic, J., ‘Extraterritorial targeting by means of armed drones: Some legal implications’, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 96, No. 893, 2014, pp. 67-106.
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977.
Rettman, A., ‘France and Germany propose EU “defence union”’, EU Observer, 12 September 2016, https://euobserver.com/foreign/135022 [2017-09-06].
Roth, A., ‘The size and location of Europe’s defence industry’, Blog post, June 22, 2017, Bruegel, http://bruegel.org/2017/06/the-size-and-location-ofeuropes-defence-industry/ [2017-08-18].
Schweiger, E., ‘The risks of remaining silent: international law formation and the EU silence on drone killings’, Global Affairs, Vol. 1, Issue 3, 2015, pp. 269-275.
Southworth, M., ‘What are Drones?’, http://fcnl.org/images/issues/afghanistan/Drones_Questions_and_Answers.pdf [2013-11-23].
Stratfor, ‘The Unstoppable Spread of Armed Drones’, Stratfor Worldview, October 25, 2016, https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/unstoppablespread-armed-drones [2017-09-17].
Tayler, L., ‘EU should press Obama on drone secrecy’, Human Rights Watch, March 27, 2014, www.hrw.org/news/2014/03/27/eu-should-press-obamadrone-secrecy [2015-07-13].
The Guardian, ‘Italy to allow US drones to fly out of Sicily air base for attacks on Isis’, The Guardian, February 22, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/feb/22/italy-us-military-drones-isis-libya-sicily-base [2017-08-18].
The Guardian, ‘Obama claims US drones strikes have killed up to 116 civilians’, The Guardian, July 1, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jul/01/obama-drones-strikes-civilian-deaths [2017-09-17].
Tucker, P., ‘Every Country Will Have Armed Drones Within 10 Years’, Defence One, May 6, 2014, http://www.defenseone.com/technology/2014/05/every-country-will-have-armed-drones-within-ten-years/83878/ [2017-09-17].
Yousaf, K., ‘International law compliance: UN adopts resolution against use of drones’, The Express Tribune, December 20, 2013, https://tribune.com.pk/story/648078/international-law-compliance-un-adopts-resolutionagainst-use-of-drones/ [2017-09-17].
Zenco, M., ‘The (Not-So) Peaceful Transition of Power: Trump’s Drone Strikes Outpace Obama’, CFR Blog, March 17, 2017, https://www.cfr.org/blogpost/not-so-peaceful-transition-power-trumps-drone-strikes-outpaceobama [2017-07-20].