Small states’ marginality constellations and the challenges to the Europeanisation of the Western Balkans in the last decade (en translation)

ORCID: Marko Kovačević: 0000-0002-6799-0411

Pages: 25-48

Edition: Lublin 2019

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2019.4.2

Citation method: M. Kovačević, Small states’ marginality constellations and the challenges to the European­isation of the Western Balkans in the last decade, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej”17 (2019), z. 4, s. 25-48, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2019.4.2.

Abstract: By focusing on the Western Balkans, this paper asks two questions: first, how small states that are both EU members and candidates for membership understand their role within this normatively powered order and, second, what their roles and agency mean for the order they are socialised into via democratic norms. The notions of hierarchies and orders are conceptualised in this paper as processes of norm diffusion and understood within the socialisation of democratic norms, which, according to the literature, can be institutionalised, rejected, or modified locally. First, I argue that such measurements can help us understand how the EU’s practices shape the broader understanding of its actorness in normative and strategic terms toward the Western Balkans. Second, I scrutinise national strategies related to the processes of state-building, security, economy, and society to demonstrate how Serbia and Croatia present their agency as supporting and affirming of the prevalent conception of order in norm localisation, or being more critical of it in the process of localised norm contestation. Third, the effects of EU approaches that provide more tactical and technical views of Europeanisation, rather than (a strategic) full thrust on enlargement, are discussed in the conclusion by bringing the comparative insights together and parsing them by means of the shelter theory for small states.

Bibliography:

Acharya A., How Ideas Spread: Whose Norms Matter? Norm Localization and Institutional Change in Asian Regionalism, „International Organi- zation” 2004, vol. 58, no. 2.

Bailes A.J.K., Thayer B.A., Thorhallsson B., Alliance theory and alliance ‘Shel- ter’: the complexities of small state alliance behaviour, „Third World The- matics: A TWQ Journal” 2016, vol. 1, no. 1.

Bailes A.J.K., Thorhallsson B., Instrumentalizing the European Union in Small State Strategies, „Journal of European Integration” 2013, vol. 35, no. 2. Bieber F., Tzifakis N., The Western Balkans as a Geopolitical Chessboard?

Myths, Realities and Policy Options, „BiEPAG Policy Brief”, June 2019, https://biepag.eu/the-western-balkans-as-a-geopolitical-chessboard- myths-realities-and-policy-options/ [25.08.2019].

Björkdahl A., Norm-maker and Norm-taker: Exploring the Normative Influ- ence of the EU in Macedonia, „European Foreign Affairs Review” 2005, vol. 10, no. 2.

Björkdahl A., Towards a reflexive study of norms, norm diffusion and iden- tity (re)construction: the transformative power of the EU in the Western Balkans, „Canterbury Law Review” 2012, vol. 18.

Börzel T., Grimm S., Building Good (Enough) Governance in Postconflict So- cieties & Areas of Limited Statehood: The European Union & the Western Balkans, „Daedalus, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts & Sci- ences” 2018, vol. 147, no. 1.

Džankić J., Keil S., Kmezić M., Introduction: The Europeanisation of the West- ern Balkans, [in:] J. Džankić, S. Keil, M. Kmezić (eds), The Europeanisation of the Western Balkans: A Failure of the EU Conditionality?, Cham 2019.

Ejdus F., Kovačević M., Penetration, Overlay, Governmentality: The Evolving Role of NATO in Western Balkan Security Dynamics, „Journal of Inter- vention and Statebuilding” 2019, vol. 13, no. 5, DOI: https://doi.org/10.10 80/17502977.2019.1660032.

Emini D., Marku D., Rethinking security: Western Balkans as a security pro- vider, „SEE Think Net”, July 2018, https://idscs.org.mk/wp-content/up- loads/2018/07/Rethinking-security.pdf [09.08.2019].

Epstein Ch., Norms: Bourdieu’s nomos, or the structural power of norms, [in:] R. Adler-Nissen (ed.), Bourdieu in International Relations: Rethink- ing Key Concepts in International Relations, Abingdon 2012.

European Commission, Communication from the Commission to the Euro- pean Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A credible enlargement perspective for an en- hanced EU engagement with the Western Balkans, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/communication-credible-enlarge-ment-perspective-western-balkans_en.pdf [19.09.2019].

European Commission, EU-Western Balkans: Six Flagship Initiatives, May 2018, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/six- flagship-initiatives-support-transformation-western-balkans_en.pdf [19.09.2019].

Eurostat 2019, Western Balkan countries-EU – international trade in goods statistics, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index. php/Western_Balkan_countries-EU_-_international_trade_in_goods_ statistics#Manufactured_goods_dominate_trade_with_Western_Balkan_ countries [19.09.2019].

Flockhart T. (ed.), Socializing Democratic Norms: The Role of International Organizations for the Construction of Europe, Houndmills – Basingstoke 2005.

Gillardi F., Transnational Diffusion: Norms, Ideas, and Policies, [in:] W. Carls- naes, T. Risse B. Simmons (eds), Handbook of International Relations, London 2013.

Grimm S., Democracy promotion in EU enlargement negotiations: more in- teraction, less hierarchy, „Democratization” 2019, vol. 26, no. 5.

Gron C.H., Wivel A., Maximizing Influence in the European Union after the Lisbon Treaty: From Small State Policy to Smart State Strategy, „Journal of European Integration” 2011, vol. 33, no. 5.

Koivisto M., Dunne T., Crisis, What Crisis? Liberal Order Building and World Order Conventions, „Millennium: Journal of International Studies” 2010, vol. 38, no. 3.

Kovačević M., Male države u svetu regiona i izazovi multipolarizacije međunarodnih odnosa na početku 21. veka, [in:] V. Knežević-Predić (ed.),Politički identitet Srbije u globalnom i regionalnom kontekstu, Beograd 2015.

Kovačević M., Serbia’s foreign policy beyond the Kosovo conundrum, Ital- ian Institute for International Political Studies, 16.05.2018, https://www. ispionline.it/en/pubblicazione/serbias-foreign-policy-beyond-kosovo- conundrum-20509 [20.09.2019].

Kovačević M., Understanding the marginality constellations of small states: Serbia, Croatia, and the crisis of EU–Russia relations, „Journal of Con- temporary European Studies” 2019, vol. 27, no. 4, DOI: https://doi.org/1 0.1080/14782804.2019.1580564.

Lantis J., Theories of International Norm Contestation: Structure and Out- comes, [in:] W.R. Thompson (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory, Oxford 2018.

Mouritzen H., Wivel A. (eds), The Geopolitics of Euro-Atlantic Integration: Europe and the Nation State, London 2005.

Neumann I., Gstohl S., Introduction: Lilliputians in Gulliver’s World, [in:] Ch. Ingebritsen, I. Neumann, S. Gstohl, J. Beyer (eds), Small States in In- ternational Relations, Seattle 2006.

Rickli J.M., European small states’ military policies after the Cold War: from territorial to niche strategies, „Cambridge Review of International Af- fairs” 2008, vol. 21, no. 3.

SEESOX, The Western Balkans and the Berlin Process, „Southeast European Studies” at Oxford, workshop report, July 2018, https://www.sant.ox.ac.uk/ sites/default/files/berlin_process_workshop_report_v2.pdf [09.08.2019].

Sedelmeier U., Europeanisation in New Member and Candidate States, „Liv- ing Reviews in European Governance” 2001, vol. 6, no. 1, http://eu- ropeangovernance.livingreviews.org/Articles/lreg-2011-1/download/ lreg-2011-1Color.pdf [08.06.2014].

Subotić J., Explaining Difficult States: The Problems of Europeanization in Serbia, „East European Politics and Societies” 2010, vol. 24, no. 4.

Šelo Šabić S., The Impact of the Refugee Crisis in the Balkans: A Drift Towards Security, „Journal of Regional Security” 2017, vol. 12, no. 1.

Tholens S., Gross L., Diffusion, contestation and localisation in post-war states: 20 years of Western Balkans reconstruction, „Journal of Interna- tional Relations and Development” 2015, vol. 18, no. 3.

Thorhallsson B., Wivel A., Small States in the European Union: What Do We Know and What Would We Like to Know?, „Cambridge Review of Inter- national Affairs” 2006, vol. 19, no. 4.

Vachudova M., EU Leverage and National Interests in the Balkans: The Puz- zles of Enlargement Ten Years On, „Journal of Common Market Studies” 2014, vol. 52.

Zarakol A. (ed.), Hierarchies in World Politics, Cambridge 2017. Zhelyazkova A., Damjanovski I., Nechev Z., Schimmelfennig F., European Un- ion Conditionality in the Western Balkans: External Incentives and Euro- peanisation, [in:] J. Džankić, S. Keil, M. Kmezić (eds), The Europeanisation of the Western Balkans: A Failure of the EU Conditionality?, Cham 2019.