The word “polycentric” has been regularly used to describe a more diffused multipolar world order. However, the concept of polycentrism has a much richer history in social science and may be applied more broadly as an analytical framework. It could serve to explain one of the biggest gaps in the global governance system, between the demand and supply of global public goods. Global governance scholars traditionally assume that the gap is caused by the lack of delivery and that international governmental organizations (IGO) are the weakest point. In other words, they dream of a global executive power. This paper argues, that in order to better understand the governance of world order, we should stop instead use better analytical tools. The polycentric approach shows that the problem lies not only in supply but equally on the demand side of global governance.
B. E. Nowak, ‘A Polycentric World Order and the Supply and Demand of Global Public Goods’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2017, pp. 29-45.
In its activity, the Council of Europe Development Bank (CEB) is particularly obliged to consider the social and environmental impacts of its actions aimed, in principle, at improving the living conditions of communi-ties and supporting their sustainable development, as well as at reducing the social costs of market failure and combating social exclusion. The Bank pro-vides support to projects prioritizing European cohesion in the fields of law, human rights protection, access to education, common cultural heritage and protecting the natural environment. Its activities are directed at the protec-tion and management of global public goods to be widely used by nations, states, civilizations and generations. In view of that, this paper presents the CEB as a multilateral development bank with an exclusively social mandate, and as an organization which does not only uphold and manage global pub-lic goods but also constitutes a global public good itself. The objective of this paper is to examine the functioning of the CEB from the perspective of global public goods. The paper describes the Bank (its origins, objectives, structure, funding, core activity and instruments) with special focus on its current activi-ties, then assesses these activities through the lens of the debate on global public goods. This paper argues, on the one hand, that the CEB as an effective guardian, provider and manager of global public goods generates added val-ue on both the national and international levels by pursuing socially-oriented projects in individual states and supporting multi-country social agendas, es-pecially in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. On the other hand, it presents the CEB as a global public good in sensu stricto, depicting it as a mar-ket leader and professional expert in the social banking field, and as a body that is not only a flexible lender responding to the needs of borrowers but also a trend setter shaping social capital markets.
M. Proczek, J. Surała, ‘The Council of Europe Development Bank and its Activities in the Context of Global Public Goods’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2017, pp. 47-68.
The authors illustrate how multilateral foreign policy can work as a lever for domestic transformation and international organizations can be-come an agent of change, when a government is willing and committed to advance a reform agenda. They examine the impact of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in the structural reforms carried out by Mexico since 2012, by analyzing the Telecommunications and Broadcasting Reform as a case study. They describe how Mexico’s foreign pol-icy towards the OECD has contributed to the transformation of these sectors through evidence-based analysis and tailor-made policy advice. They con-clude by reflecting on the OECD’s role in the future of the reform agenda in the country, and on its increasing contribution to the Latin American region.
M. Aspe Bernal, C. Tena Razo, ‘Multilateralism and Domestic Transformation: The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and Mexico’s Telecommunications Reform’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2017, pp. 69-79.
The aim of this paper is to outline the scope and character of the changes introduced to the Polish legal system with respect to gender equality as a result of the accession of the Republic of Poland to the European Union (EU) in 2004. Analysis concentrates on selected EU and Polish legal acts, as well as doctrine and statistical data. Reference is made to relevant case law of the Court of Justice of the EU and Polish courts. This paper seeks to draw out the fact that, if not for the nature of the EU as supranational organization that results in the legal obligation of its Member States to implement EU anti-discrimination law under the scrutiny of the competent international court (the CJEU), changes to the Polish legal system in the area of gender equality would have taken longer to implement, or may not have been made at all. The paper takes into consideration that the EU plays a key role in promoting gender equality as a public good, including beyond its borders, supporting third countries in achieving tangible gender equality results. In this respect, the EU’s actions help to promote gender equality as “shared global priority.”
A. Szczerba-Zawada, ‘Delivering Public Goods Through Law: the European Union as an Agent of change to Gender Equality Legislation in Poland’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2017, pp. 81-101.
The expansion of North Korea’s nuclear and ballistic missile pro-grams, coupled with belligerent rhetoric, has raised tensions between North Korea and the international community to unprecedented levels. Sanctions are the best tool to respond to North Korea and can be applied to coerce a change in behavior that would bring about the resumption of negotia-tions between stakeholders. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has adopted sanctions resolutions that highlight the shared interest of stability and security, and signal the need to find a political solution. A multilateral response will disrupt North Korea’s ability to use provocations to seek con-cessions. Central European countries’ participation in the United Nations (UN) system and their cooperation to implement sanctions will play a vital role in achieving this goal. Increasing sanctions compliance and applying pressure on the North Korean regime will create space for negotiations between stake-holders and North Korea, which could achieve a peaceful political solution.
T. Cullinan, ‘Multilateral Sanctions on North Korea and the Role of Central Europe’, Year-book of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2017, pp. 103-117.
The main aim of this paper is to present how the security interests of Greece have evolved within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in the changing international environment. During the Cold War, at the point when Greece became a member of the Alliance (1952), it perceived the Bal-kan Communist countries as the main threat. NATO was to guarantee secu-rity from a possible attack from the north. The Cyprus Crisis of 1974, however, changed Turkey into the main potential enemy. At that time, the United States (US) and NATO began to act to prevent any possible military conflict between Greece and Turkey. Despite Greece’s changing international environment, the disintegration of the Eastern Bloc has not led to any change in the perception of Turkey as a major threat. Of course, new threats appeared on the Balkan Peninsula, but these were dealt with by NATO, which bolstered the rationale behind Greece’s membership of the Alliance. Further threats to Greek security, stemming from the unstable situation in North Africa and the Middle East, are offset by the involvement of the US and NATO. For Greece, Turkey is still the biggest threat, given its aggressive policy in the Aegean Sea and towards Cyprus.
A. Adamczyk, ‘Greece in NATO: Evolution of Interests in the Context of Changes in the International Environment’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2017, pp. 119-140.
The paper discusses the actual development of innovation in Poland as financed by the European Union (EU) according to the targets of the Europe 2020 Strategy. It reviews the systemic model of introducing innovation in Poland, the complexity of defining innovation and evaluates Poland’s innovation performance, in particular at the voivodeship level, compared to other member states.
A. Kłos, ‘Implementing Innovation in Poland with EU Funds: Progress or Hindrance’, Year-book of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2017, pp. 141-160.