Closing Gates to Refugees: The Causes and Effects of the 2015 “Migration Crisis” on Border Management in Hungary and Poland

ORCID: Witold Klaus: 0000-0003-2306-1140

ORCID: Witold Klaus: 0000-0003-2306-1140

Pages: 11-34

Edition: Lublin 2017

DOI: --

Citation method: W. Klaus, ‘Closing Gates to Refugees: The Causes and Effects of the 2015 “Migration Crisis” on Border Management in Hungary and Poland’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2017, pp. 11-34.

Abstract: In this paper, I demonstrate the process of treating asylum seekers and refugees as a dangerous enemy. Those two groups of immigrants find themselves at the receiving end of measures that infringe basic humanitarian laws and human rights, and are so inhumane that no one would ever dare to introduce them on their own citizens. Equating refugees with terrorists and prioritizing security constitute two pillars of the ruling parties’ policy in Poland and Hungary. Apart from technical security measures (like fences), both governments adopt additional instruments to discourage migrants from coming or encourage them to leave (like creating obstacles to let them onto the territory of the country, refusing to grant them international protection, making their integration difficult or almost impossible). Such activity fulfils the definition of “Fortress Europe”, which is not only about building stone walls or fences but about increasing control of every aspect of migrants’ lives as well.

Bibliography:

Aas, K., ‘“Crimmigrant” bodies and bona fide travelers: Surveillance, citizenship and global governance’, Theoretical Criminology, vol. 15, no. 3, 2011, pp. 331-346.
Aas, K. and H.O.I. Gundhus, ‘Policing Humanitarian Borderlands: Frontex, Human Rights and the Precariousness of Life’, British Journal of Criminology, vol. 55, no. 1, 2015, pp. 1-18.
Albrecht, H.J., ‘Fortress Europe?—Controlling Illegal Immigration’, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, vol. 10, no. 1, 2002, pp. 1-22.
Bakonyi, A., Léderer, A. and Z. Szerekes, Best Interest Out of Sight—The Treatment of Asylum Seeking Children in Hungary, Budapest: Hungarian Helsinki Committee, 2017.
Bard, P., ‘What is behind the low number of hate crimes in Hungary?’, Criminology in Europe, vol. 16, no. 1, 2017, pp. 10-11.
Border Guards Statistical Bulletin for the 1st half of 2017 [Biuletyn statystyczny Straży Granicznej za I półrocze 2017 r.], http://strazgraniczna.pl/download/1/14456/bieltynIpolrocze2017.pdf, p. 8 [2017-08-22].
Brandariz García, J.Á. and C. Fernández Bessa, ‘The Construction of Migrants as a Risk Category in the Spanish Penal System’, in: S. Palidda (ed), Racial Criminalization of Migrants in the 21st Century, Farnham-Burlington: Ashgate, 2011, p. 198-212.
Caestecker, F. and B. Moore, ‘A Comparative Analysis of Immigration Policies of Liberal States in Western Europe and the Flight from Nazi Germany’, in: F. Caestecker and B. Moore (eds), Refugees from Nazi Germany and the Liberal European States, New York-Oxford: Berghahn, 2010, pp. 191-312.
Chrzanowska, A. et al., At the border. Report on monitoring of access to the procedure for granting international protection at border crossings in Terespol, Medyka, and Warszawa-Okęcie Airport, Warsaw: Association for Legal Intervention, 2016, http://interwencjaprawna.pl/en/files/at-theborder.pdf [2017-08-11].
Dauvergne, C., ‘The Troublesome Intersections of Refugee Law and Criminal Law’, in: K. Aas and M. Bosworth (eds), The Borders of Punishment. Migration, Citizenship, and Social Exclusion, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 76-90.
Directive 2013/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection.
European Commission, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1285_en.htm [2017-08-21].
European Court of Human Rights, M.A. and Others v. Poland (42902/17), http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-176484 [2017-08-24].
European Court of Human Rights, Ilias and Ahmed v. Hungary, http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng#{%22itemid%22:[%22001-172091%22] [2017-08-21].
European Court of Human Rights, M.K. v. Poland (40503/17), http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-176229 [2017-08-21].
European Court of Human Rights, M.K. and Others v. Poland (43643/17), http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-176472 [2017-08-21].
Fekete, L., A Suitable Enemy. Racism, Migration and Islamophobia in Europe, London-New York: Pluto Press, 2009.
Górczyńska, M. and M. Szczepanik, A road to nowhere. The account of a monitoring visit at the Brześć-Terespol border crossing between Poland and Belarus, Warsaw: Helsinki Fundation for Human Rights, 2016, http://www.hfhr.pl/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/A-road-to-nowhere.-The-account-of-a-monitoring-visit-at-the-Brze%C5%9B%C4%87-Terespol-border-crossing-point-FINAL.pdf [2017-08-11].
Granet, M., Cywilizacja chińska [Chineese civilisation], Warsaw: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1995.
Heemsbergen, L. and A. Daly, ‘Leaking Boats and Borders: The Virtu of surveilling Australia’s refugee population’, Surveillance & Society, vol. 15, no. 3/4, 2017, pp. 389-396.
Herlin-Karnell, E., ‘The domination of security and the promise of justice: on justification and proportionality in Europe’s “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice”’, Transnational Legal Theory, vol. 8, no. 1, 2017, pp. 79-102.
Hungary: Government’s New Asylum Bill on Collective Push-backs and Automatic Detention, Hungarian Helsinki Committee, 15 February 2017, http://www.helsinki.hu/wp-content/uploads/HHC-Info-Update-New-Asylum-Bill-15.02.2017.pdf [2017-08-11].
Hungary: Key Asylum Figures as of 1 August 2017, Hungarian Helsinki Committee, http://www.helsinki.hu/wp-content/uploads/HHC-Hungary-asylum-figures-1-August-2017.pdf [2017-08-11].
Hungary: Turbulent 50 days—an update on the Hungarian asylum situation, Hungarian Helsinki Committee, 22 May 2017, http://www.helsinki.hu/wp-content/uploads/HHC-Info-Update-50-days-after.pdf [2017-08-11].
Huysmans, J., ‘The European Union Securitization of Migration’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 38, no. 5, 2000, pp. 751-777.
Kaczmarczyk, P., ‘Polska jako kraj emigracji i imigracji’ [Poland as an emigration and immigration country], in: P. Kaczmarczyk (ed), Mobilność i migracje w dobie transformacji. Wyzwania metodologiczne [Mobility and migration in the time of transformation. Methodological challenges], Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, 2011, pp. 14-37.
Kallius, A., Monterescu, D. and P. Kumar Rajaram, ‘Immobilizing mobility: Border ethnography, illiberal democracy, and the politics of the “refugee crisis” in Hungary’, American Ethnologist, vol. 43, no. 1, 2016, pp. 1-13.
Klaus, W. et al., ‘Refugees and asylum seekers in Central-European Countries—reality, politics and the creation of fear in societies’, in: H. Kury and S. Redo (eds), Refugee Law and Policy. Challenges and Opportunities for Global Civic Education, Springer International Publishing, forthcoming.
Klaus, W., ‘Security First—New Right-Wing Government in Poland and its Policy Towards Immigrants and Refugees’, Surveillance and Society, vol. 15, no. 3/4, 2017, pp. 523-528.
Kmak, M., ‘‘‘The Ugly” of EU Migration Policy: The role of the Recast Reception Directive in Fragmentation of the Refugee Subject’, in: D.A. Gozdecka and M. Kmak (eds), Europe at the Edge of Pluralism, Cambridge, Antwerp and Portland: Intersentia Publishing, 2015, pp. 83-94.
Komornicki, T., Granice Polski. Analiza zmian przenikalności w latach 1990-1996 [Polish borders. Analisys of changes in permeability between 1990 and 1996], Warsaw: Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN, 1997.
Letter from the Department for Analysis and Migration Policy of MSWiA of 9 August 2017, reference no. DAiPM-WSNPA-0231-2/2016.
Łukasiewicz, K., ‘„Integracja” po polsku. Strategie adaptacyjne uchodźców czeczeńskich w Polsce’ [Polish style of ‘integration’. Strategies of adaptation of Chechen refugees in Poland], Studia Migracyjne—Przegląd Polonijny [Migration Studies—Review of Polish Diaspora], no. 2, 2011, pp. 201-220.
Nagy, B., ‘Hungarian Asylum Law and Policy in 2015-2016: Securitization Instead of Loyal Cooperation’, German Law Journal, vol. 17, no. 6, 2016, pp. 1033-1082.
Nagy, B., Sharing the Responsibility or Shifting the Focus? The Responses of the EU and the Visegrad Countries to the Post-2015 Arrival of Migrants and Refugees, Budapest: Central European University, 2017.
Nail, T., The Figure of the Migrant, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2015.
Pachocka, M., ‘The Eastern Partnership in Times of the Migrant and Refugee Crisis in the European Union’, in: C.E. Pacheco Amaral, V. Cucerescu, G. Gabrichidze, I. Horga, A. Kruglashov, E. Latoszek and M. Pachocka (eds), EU Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine: Through Cooperation Towards Integration, Chișinău-Tbilisi-Chernivtsi: Tipografia “Print-Caro”, 2017, pp. 17-31.
Pachocka, M., ‘The European Union in Times of Migrant and Refugee Crises’, in: V. Beniuc and L. Rosca (eds), Peculiarities of development in a globalized world economy, Chisinau: Institute of International Relations of Moldova, 2016, pp. 86-100.
Pietraszczyk, M., ‘Funkcjonowanie Straży Granicznej w warunkach strefy Schengen’ [The work of the Polish Border Guards under the Schengen Area regulations], in: Polska w strefie Schengen. Refleksje po pierwszym roku członkostwa [Poland in the Schengen Area. Reflections after first year of membership], Warsaw: MSWiA, 2008, pp. 64-72.
Rodziński, W., Historia Chin [The History of China], Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków: Ossolineum, 1992.
Simonovits, B. and A. Bernát (eds), The Social Aspects of the 2015 Migration Crisis in Hungary, Budapest: TÁRKI Social Research Institute, 2016.
Statistics by Office for Foreigners, https://udsc.gov.pl/statystyki/raportyokresowe/zestawienia-roczne/ [2017-08-24].
Straż Graniczna [Border Guard], http://strazgraniczna.pl/pl/granica/statystyki-sg/2206,Statystyki-SG.html [2017-08-22].
The reply to parliamentary question on the protection of Polish Eastern border from inflow of illegal immigrants (interpellation nr 82), http://www.sejm.gov.pl/Sejm8.nsf/InterpelacjaTresc.xsp?key=069165C9 [2017-08-22].
Under Destruction: Dismantling Refugee Protection in Hungary in 2016, Hungarian Helsinki Committee, March 2017, http://www.helsinki.hu/wp-content/uploads/Under-destruction_2016.pdf [2017-08-11].
Valluy, J., ‘The Metamorphosis of Asylum in Europe: From the Origins of “Fake Refugees” to their Internment’, in: S. Palidda (ed), Racial Criminalization of Migrants in the 21st Century, Farnham-Burlington: Ashgate, 2011, pp. 107-117.
Winslow, A.M., ‘Shifting Immigration Policies in Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis Across the European Union: A Case Analysis of Germany, Hungary, and Lithuania’, Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union, vol. 2016, Article 9, 2016, pp. 101-113.
Young, J., The Vertigo of Late Modernity, Los Angeles-London-New Delhi, Singapore: Sage 2007.
Zeldin, W., Hungary: New Law Permits Army’s Use of Non-Lethal Weapons Against Illegal Migrants, 6 November 2015, https://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/hungary-new-law-permits-armys-use-of-non-lethalweapons-against-illegal-migrants/ [2017-08-18].