Central Europe: issues, developments, policies

Issue editor: Anna Visvizi

ISSN: 1732-1395

e-ISSN: 2719-2911

Number of pages: 217

Publisher: Instytut Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej

Edition: Lublin 2018

Articles

Article

Liberal Democracy vs. Autocracy: the Case of Ukraine

Views count: 581
The object of this paper is to determine what kind of state is being built in Ukraine: a liberal-democratic or an authoritarian one. This article gives a brief overview of the concepts of the ‘rule of law’, ‘liberal democracy’, and ‘hybrid regimes’. It shows general trends in the status and development of democracy in East-Central Europe and identifies the main risks for democracy development in Ukraine. The paper closely examines the public administration and the judicial system of Ukraine, the work of its Central Election Commission (CEC), and the functioning of mass media and social media. The article shows that the powers of the presidential office have been expanded since 2016 while at the same time undermining democratic institutions established in the aftermath of the Euromaidan revolution.

Hanna Bazhenova, ‘Liberal Democracy vs. Autocracy: the Case of Ukraine’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2018, pp. 15-38.

112.UA, ‘OSCE condemns spreading fake information in Ukraine’, 30 May 2018, https://112.international/ukraine-top-news/osce-condemns-spreading-fake-information-in-ukraine-28941.html [2018-06-20].
‘Association Implementation Report on Ukraine. Joint Staff Working Document’, European Commission, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Policy, Brussels, 14.11.2017, https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/association_implementation_report_on_ukraine.pdf [2018-08-31].
Averchuk, R., ‘Presidential Power in Ukraine: A Comparative Analysis’, Vox-Ukraine, 8 July 2016, https://voxukraine.org/en/presidential-power-inukraine-comparative-perspective-en/ [2018-06-13].
Bayly, L., ‘U.S. hits E.U., Canada and Mexico with steel, aluminum tariffs, sparking trade war’, NBC News, 31 May 2018, https://www.nbcnews.com/business/economy/u-s-hits-e-u-canada-mexico-steel-aluminum-tariffsn878881[2018-06-25].
BBC, ‘Arkady Babchenko: Ukraine faked murder of journalist’, News, 30 May 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-44307611 [2018-06-25].
Bertelsmann Stiftung, BTI 2018 Country Report – Ukraine, Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2018.
Brown, P. and J. Horowitz, ‘Trump announces tariffs on $50 billion worth of Chinese goods’, CNNMoney, 15 June 2018, http://money.cnn.com/2018/06/14/news/economy/trump-china-tariffs/index.html [2018-06-25].
Carothers, T., ‘The Rule-of-Law Revival’, in: T. Carothers (ed.), Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge, Washington, D. C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2006, pp. 3-13.
Constitutional Court of Ukraine [Конституційний Суд України], Рішення Конституційного Суду України від 21 грудня 2017 року № 3-р/2017 [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine from December 21, 2017 No. 3-p/2017], http://ccu.gov.ua/sites/default/files/docs/3-p_2017_0.pdf [2018-08-28].
Council of Europe, ‘Ukraine: Secretary General Jagland voices concern over blocking social networks and websites’, News, 17 May 2017, https://www.coe.int/en/web/secretary-general/-/secretary-general-voices-concernover-blocking-social-networks-websites-in-ukraine [2018-08-29].
Diamond, L., Defending Liberal Democracy from the Slide Toward Authoritarianism. Keynote Speech to the European Democracy Conference 2017 Bratislava, November 21, 2017, pp. 1-15, http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_24479-1442-1-30.pdf?171130131056 [2018-08-30].
Diamond, L., ‘Facing Up to the Democratic Recession’, Journal of Democracy, vol. 26, no. 1, January 2015, pp. 141-155.
Diamond, L. and L. Morlino, ‘Introduction’, in: L. Diamond and L. Morlino (eds), Assessing the Quality of Democracy, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005, pp. ix-xliii.
Espreso.TV [Еспресо], ‘Рада не розглянула призначення нового складу ЦВК’ [The Rada did not consider the appointment of the New CEC], 19 April 2018, https://espreso.tv/news/2018/04/19/rada_ne_rozglyanula_pryznachennya_novogo_skladu_cvk [2018-06-11].
European Council, ‘Joint statement following the 20th EU–Ukraine Summit Brussels’, 9 July 2018, https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/36086/joint-statement-eu-ua-summit-2018.pdf [2018-08-31].
Farion, I., [Фаріон, І.], ‘«Підвішений» Центрвиборчком’ [The ‘suspended’ Central Election Commission], Високий замок [High castle], 21 May 2018, https://wz.lviv.ua/article/371374-opoblok-khoche-bachyty-u-tsvkfihuranta-chornoi-bukhhalterii-partii-rehioniv [2018-06-11].
Freedom House, ‘Freedom in the World 2018: Democracy in Crisis’, https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/freedom-world-2018 [2018-06-18].
Freedom House, ‘Freedom in the World 2018: Ukraine Profile’, https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2018/ukraine [2018-06-05].
Fukuyama, F., Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy, First edition, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2014.
Fukuyama, F., ‘The Historical Pattern of Political Development in East Asia’, in: L. Diamond and M. F. Plattner, Yun-han Chu (eds), Democracy in East Asia. A new Century, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013, pp. 3-15.
Fukuyama, F., ‘The Rise of Populist Nationalism’, in: 2018 Davos Edition: “The Future of Politics”, [Zurich]: Credit Suisse Research Institute, [2018], pp. 7-12.
Galston, W. A., ‘The populist challenge to liberal democracy’, Brookings, 17 April 2018, https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-populist-challenge-to-liberal-democracy/ [2018-06-25].
Giardullo, C., ‘Four Years After: The “Long March” of Justice-Sector Reforms in Ukraine’, IAI Papers, no. 1 (January), 2018, pp. 1-23.
Halling, S., ‘EPDE Policy Alert – Electoral Reform in Ukraine #7’, European Platform for Democratic Elections, 23 July 2018, https://www.epde.org/en/news/details/epde-policy-alert-electoral-reform-in-ukraine-7.html [2018-08-30].
Hromadske international, ‘Blocking Sites Limits Freedom of Expression in Ukraine – Freedom House’, Politics, 16 May 2017, https://en.hromadske.ua/posts/blocking-websites-could-limit-access-to-information-in-ukrainefreedom-house [2018-06-20].
Human Rights Watch, ‘Ukraine. Events of 2017’, https://www.hrw.org/worldreport/2018/country-chapters/ukraine [2018-06-20].
Huntington, S. P., ‘Democracy’s Third Wave’, Journal of Democracy, vol. 2, no. 2, Spring 1991, pp. 12-34.
Huntington, S. P., The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
Jarábik, B. and M. Minakov, ‘The Consolidation of Power in Ukraine: What It Means for the West’, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 19 September 2016, http://carnegieendowment.org/2016/09/19/consolidationof-power-in-ukraine-what-it-means-for-west-pub-64623 [2018-08-30].
Jarábik, B. and T. de Waal, ‘Ukraine Reform Monitor: March 2018’, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace , 27 March 2018, https://carnegieendowment.org/2018/03/27/ukraine-reform-monitor-march-2018-pub-75909 [2018-08-27].
Koval, D., ‘Forbidden Likes and Shares – Poroshenko’s Ban of Russian Social Networks’, Democracy Reporting International, 17 August 2017, https://democracy-reporting.org/forbidden-likes-and-shares-poroshenkos-banof-russian-social-networks/ [2018-08-29].
Krastev, I., ‘Eastern Europe’s Illiberal Revolution. The Long Road to Democratic Decline’, Foreign Affairs, May/June 2018 Issue, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/hungary/2018-04-16/eastern-europes-illiberal-revolution[2018-09-09].
Levitsky, S. and L. Way, Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes After the Cold War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Linz, J. J. and A. C. Stepan, ‘Toward Consolidated Democracies’, Journal of Democracy, vol. 7, no. 2, April 1996, pp. 14-33.
Matsievskiy, Y. V., [Мациевский, Ю. В.], ‘В ловушке гибридности: политический режим в Украине после революции 2014 года’, Polis. Political Studies, no. 1, 2018, pp. 96-115.
Matsiievskyi, Y. V., [Мацієвський, Ю. В.], У пастці гібридності: зиґзаґи трансформацій політичного режиму в Україні (1991-2014) [In the trap of hybridity: zigzags of the transformations of the political regime in Ukraine (1991-2014)], Чернівці [Chernivtsi]: Книги – XXI, 2016.
McFaul, M., ‘The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: Noncooperative Transitions in the Postcommunist World’, World Politics, vol. 54, no. 2, 2002, pp. 212-244.
Merkel, W., ‘Embedded and Defective Democracies’, Democratization, vol. 11, no. 5, 2004, pp. 33-58.
Minakov, M., [Мінаков, М.], ‘Між владною вертикаллю та ліберальною демократією. Перспективи розвитку політичного режиму в Україні’ [Between power vertical and liberal democracy. The prospects for the development of the political regime in Ukraine], Агора [Agora], no. 19-20, 2017, pp. 9-15.
Minakov, M., ‘Reconstructing the power vertical: the authoritarian threat in Ukraine’, oDR: Russia and Beyond, 29 June 2017, https://www.opendemocracy.net/od-russia/mikhail-minakov/reconstructing-power-verticalauthoritarian-threat-in-ukraine [2018-08-30].
Møller, J. and S.-E. Skaaning, ‘The Third Wave Inside the Numbers’, Journal of Democracy, vol. 24, no. 4, October 2013, pp. 97-109.
O’Donnell, G., ‘Why the Rule of Law Matters’, in: L. Diamond and L. Morlino (eds), Assessing the Quality of Democracy, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005, pp. 3-17.
‘On the Judiciary and Status of Judges’. Law of Ukraine no. 1402-VIII from 2.06.2016, High Qualification Commission of Judges of Ukraine, https://vkksu.gov.ua/userfiles/doc/Law_on_Judiciary_and_Status_of_Judges_16%2007%202016_ENG.pdf [2018-06-19].
Parliamentary Assembly. Council of Europe, ‘Resolution 2203 (2018). The progress of the Assembly’s monitoring procedure (January-December 2017) and the periodic review of the honouring of obligations by Estonia, Greece, Hungary and Ireland’, http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=24493&lang=en [2018-08-30].
Polityuk, P., ‘Ukraine appoints Poroshenko ally with no legal experience as top prosecutor’, REUTERS, 12 May 2016, https://www.reuters.com/article/usukraine-parliament-prosecutor/ukraine-appoints-poroshenko-ally-withno-legal-experience-as-top-prosecutor-idUSKCN0Y311A [2018-08-28].
Pozhyvanov, M., [Поживанов, М.], ‘Порошенко стає Януковичем: доведено Freedom House’ [Poroshenko becomes Yanukovych: proved by Freedom House], Facenews, 16 April 2018, https://www.facenews.ua/columns/2018/320439/ [2018-06-25].
Public Organisation “Public auditing” [ГО “Публічний аудит”], ‘Реформа судової системи в Україні від Президента’ [The reform of the judicial system in Ukraine from the President], Публічний аудит [Public auditing], http://publicaudit.com.ua/reports-on-audit/reforma-sudovoyi-systemy-v-ukrayini-vid-prezydenta/ [2018-06-13].
Rochelle, S. and J. Loschky, ‘Confidence in Judicial Systems Varies Worldwide’, Gallup, 22 October 2014, https://news.gallup.com/poll/178757/confidence-judicial-systems-varies-worldwide.aspx [2018-08-30].
Schedler, А., ‘The Menu of Manipulation’, Journal of Democracy, vol. 13, no. 2, April 2002, pp. 36-50.
Schedler, A. (ed.), Electoral Authoritarianism: the Dynamics of Unfree Competition, Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner, 2006.
Schenkkan, N., ‘Nations in Transit 2018: Confronting Illiberalism’, in: Nations in Transit 2018, [Washington]: Freedom House, [2018], pp. 1-5. Schwab, K. (ed.), The Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, [Geneva]: World Economic Forum, [2017].
Schwarz, R., ‘Democracy under Pressure: Polarization and Repression Are Increasing Worldwide’, Bertelsmann Stiftung, 22 March 2018, https://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/en/topics/aktuelle-meldungen/2018/maerz/democracy-under-pressure-polarization-and-repression-are-increasingworldwide/[2018-06-25].
Tóth, C., ‘Full text of Viktor Orbán’s speech at Băile Tuşnad (Tusnádfürdő) of 26 July 2014’, The Budapest Beacon, 29 July 2014, https://budapestbeacon.com/full-text-of-viktor-orbans-speech-at-baile-tusnad-tusnadfurdoof-26-july-2014/ [2018-06-10].
Yesmukhanova, Y., ‘Nations in Transit 2018: Ukraine Country Profile’, Freedom House, https://freedomhouse.org/report/nations-transit/2018/ukraine[2018-06-05].
Zadiraka, K., [Задирака, К.], ‘Концентрація влади та згортання демократії: чи готові ми до єдиної України?’ [Concentration of power and curtailment of democracy: are we ready for the united Ukraine?], Commons, 7 September 2017, https://commons.com.ua/en/koncentraciya-vladi/[2018-06-25].
Zuckert, M. P., ‘Hobbes, Locke, and the Problem of the Rule of Law’, in: I. Shapiro (ed.), The Rule of Law, New York, London: New York University Press, 1994.

Article

Constructing the Reality: the Perception of the European Union in the 2018 Hungarian Electoral Campaign

Views count: 558
The European Union as a sui generis political system has had its political myths from the beginning of its existence. However, as political myths are not static but are subject to change as groups in the society come up with alternative explanations, countermyths started to emerge already in the 1980s. In our days, we witness competing views – myths and countermyths – on the EU that are presented in politics. In this paper I examine the use of these competing views on the EU in the 2018 Hungarian electoral campaign. I conclude that while FIDESZ and its leader Viktor Orbán applied all countermyths of the EU in his speeches, opposition parties did not talk at all about the European Union, thus leaving the positive myths about the EU unheard during the campaign.

Krisztina Arató, ‘Constructing the Reality: the Perception of the European Union in the 2018 Hungarian Electoral Campaign’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2018, pp. 39-60.

Arató, K., Myths and Countermyths in the European Union, Studies in Public Policy, Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, 2014.
Arató, K., ‘Pros and Cons in The Brexit Campaign: What do They Tell Us About The European Union?’, ELTE Law Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, 2016, pp. 49-72.
Arató, K. and B. Koller, ‘Magyarország és az Európai Unió’ [Hungary and the European Union], in: A. Körösényi (ed.), A magyar politikai rendszer – negyedszázad után [The Hungarian political system – a decade after], Budapest: Osiris, 2015, pp. 377-400.
Barthes, R., Mythologies, selected and translated from the French by Annette Lavers, New York: The Noonday Press, 1972.
Bell, D., ‘Mythscapes: Memory, Mythology and National Identity’, British Journal of Sociology, vol. 54, no. 1, 2003, pp. 63-81.
Bennett, L. W., ‘Myth, Ritual ans Political Control’, Journal of Communication, vol. 30, no. 4, 1980, pp. 166-179.
Blumenberg, H., Work on Myth. Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought, Massachusetts: MIT, 1988.
Boros, T. et. al., The State of Populism in the European Union, Brussels–Budapest: FEPS, 2016, https://www.policysolutions.hu/userfiles/elemzes/264/state_of_populism_in_europe_in_2016.pdf [2018-05-22].
Botticci, C. and B. Challand, ‘Rethinking Political Myth. The Clash of Civilizations as a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy’, European Journal of Social Theory, vol. 9, no. 3, 2006, pp. 315-336.
Bozóki, A. and D. Hegedűs, ‘An externally constrained hybrid regime: Hungary in the European Union’, Democratization, 2018, DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2018.1455664.
Buti, M. and K. Pichelmann, European integration and populism: addressing Dahrendorf’s quandary, 2017, https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/jan2017-populism.pdf [2018-05-22].
Crespy, A., ‘Analysing European Discourses’, in: K. Lyngaard and I. Manners, K. Löfgren (eds), Research methods in European Studies, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, pp. 102-122.
Della Sala, V., ‘Political Myth, Mythology and the European Union’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 48, no. 1, 2010, pp. 1-19.
Enyedi, Zs. and K. Benoit, ‘Kritikus választás 2010. A magyar pártrendszer átrendeződése a bal-jobb dimenzióban’ [Critical elections 2010. The realignment of the Hungarian party system in the left-right dimension], in: Zs. Enyedi and A. Szabó Andrea, R. Tardos (eds), Új képlet. Választás Magyarországon 2010 [New pattern. The 2010 election in Hungary], Budapest: DKMKA – Századvég, 2011, pp. 17-42.
European Commisssion, Public opinion, Standard Eurobarometer 88. Autumn 2017. First Results, http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/Survey/getSurveyDetail/instruments/STANDARD/surveyKy/2143 [2018-05-22].
Fiske, J., Introduction to Communication Studies, London: Routledge, 1982.
Flood, C., Political Myths. A Theoretical Introduction, London and New York: Routledge, 2002.
Greven, T., The Rise of Right-wing Populism in Europe and the United States. A Comparative Perspective, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2016, http://www.fesdc.org/fileadmin/user_upload/publications/RightwingPopulism.pdf [2018-05-22].
Habermas, J., Zur Verfassung Europas. Ein Essay [About the Constitution: an essay], Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag, 2011.
Hansen, L. and M. C. Williams, ‘The Myths of Europe: Legitimacy, Community and the “Crisi” of the EU’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 37, no. 2, 1999, pp. 233-249.
Hloušek, V. and L. Kopeček, Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared, London: Ashgate, 2010.
Ilonszki, G. and A. Schwarz, ‘Hungarian MPs in the context of political transformation (1990-2010)’, in: E. Semenova and M. Edinger, H. Best (eds), Parliamentary Elites in Central and Eastern Europe: Recruitment and representation, London: Routledge, 2014, pp. 54-73.
Janning, J., ‘Hungary in the EU: From front runner to veto player. Commentary’, European Council on Foreign Relations, 4 April 2018, https://www.ecfr.eu/article/commentary_hungary_in_the_eu_from_front_runner_to_veto_player [2018-05-22].
Messing, V. and G. Bernáth, Infiltration of political meaning-production: security threat or humanitarian crisis? The coverage of the refugee ‘crisis’ in the Austrian and Hungarian media in early autumn 2015, Budapest: CEU SPP Center for Media, Data and Society, 2016, https://cmds.ceu.edu/sites/cmcs.ceu.hu/files/attachment/article/1041/infiltrationofpoliticalmeaningfinalizedweb.pdf [2018-05-22].
Mudde, C. and C. R. Kaltwasser, Populism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
Müller, J.-W., What is populism?, Philadelhia: University of Pennsyvania Press, 2016.
Obradovic, D., ‘Policy Legitimacy and the European Union’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 34, no. 2, June 1996, pp. 191-221.
Polyák, G., ‘Political communication in the Hungarian election campaign’, Univiennamedialab, 4 April 2018, https://univiennamedialab.wordpress.com/2018/04/04/political-communication-in-the-hungarian-electioncampaign/[2018-05-22].
Radaelli, C., ‘Harmful Tax Competition in the EU: Policy Narratives and Advocacy Coalitions’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 37, no. 4, 1999, pp. 661-682.
Reid, J., A Theoretical Explanation of the Construction of Counter Myth: a Case Study of Post Apartheid South African Film, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of South Africa, 2011, http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/5961/dissertation_reid_j.pdf?sequence=1 [2018-05-22].
Schöpflin, G., ‘The Functions of Myth and a Taxonomy of Myths’, in: G. Hosking and G. Shcöpflin (eds), The Myths of Nationhood, London: Hurst & Company 1997, pp. 19-35.
Sheridan-Rabideau, M. P., ‘The Stuff that Myths Are Made of: Myth Building as Social Action’, Written Communication, vol. 18, October 2001, pp. 440-469.

Article

The New Research Agenda of Examining Organized Interests in Post-Communist Policy-Making

Views count: 554
This paper presents new research agenda focused on organised interests in selected policy areas in the post-communist countries. In recent years, political scientists have made significant advancements in comparatively analysing the influence of organized interests in the political process. However, the post-communist region has been largely neglected. Instead, large bodies of research have focussed on formal political institutions, party systems and the Europeanization of public administrations in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The research agenda discussed here seeks to overcome this research gap by exploring the structures, democratic-participative incorporation and impact of organized interests on policy-making in four postcommunist EU members: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovenia and Hungary.

Andrzej Zybała, ‘Public Policy in Poland in Context of Tendencies Unfolding in Central
Europe. Conclusions from Case Studies’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2018,
pp. 81-103.

Ágh, A., ‘Meso-politics in Central Europe: fighting with the infantile disease in Europeanisation and democratisation’, in: A. Ágh and G. Ilonszki (eds), TheSecond Steps, Budapest: Hungarian Centre of Democracy Studies, 1996.
Avdagic, S., ‘State-labour relations in East Central Europe: explaining variations in union effectiveness’, Socio-Economic Review 3(1), 2005, pp. 25-53.
Baumgartner, F. and J. Berry, M. Hojnacki, D. C. Kimball, B. L. Leech, Lobbying and Policy Change: Who Wins, Who Loses, and Why, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.
Beliaev, M., ‘Presidential Powers and Consolidation of New Postcommunist Democracies’, Comparative Political Studies 39(3), 2006, pp. 375-398.
Bennett, A. and A. George, Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005.
Benz, A. and N. Dose, Governance – Regieren In komplexen Regelsystemen: Eine Einführung, Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 2005.
Bernhagen, P., ‘When do politicians listen to lobbyists (and who benefits when they do)?’, European Journal of Political Research 52(1), 2013, pp. 20-43.
Beyers, J., ‘Voice and access: Political practices of European interest associations’, European Union Politics 5(2), 2004, pp. 211-240.
Beyers, J. and R. Eising, W. Maloney, ‘Conclusion: Embedding Interest Group Research’, Western European Politics 31(6), 2008, pp. 1292-1302.
Björkman, J. and J. Nemec, Health Reforms in Central and Eastern Europe: Options, Obstacles and Limited Outcomes, Den Haag: Eleven International Publishers, 2013.
Bruszt, L. and D. Stark, Postsocialist Pathways: Transforming Politics and Property in East Central Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Cox, T. and B. Mason, ‘Interest groups and the development of tripartism in East Central Europe’, European Journal of Industrial Relations 6(3), 2000, pp. 325-347.
Cox, T. and L. Vass, ‘Government-Interest Group Relations in Hungarian Politics Since 1989’, Europe-Asia Studies, 52(6), 2000, pp. 1095-1114.
Cox, T., “Interest representation and state-society relations in East Central Europe”, Aleksanteri Papers 2/2012.
Crouch, C. and W. Streeck, The Diversity of Democracy Corporatism, Social Order and Political Conflict, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2006.
Dimitrov, V. and K. Goetz, H. Wollmann, Governing After Communism: Institutions And Policymaking, Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006.
Dobbins, M. and C. Knill, ‘Higher Education Policies in Central and Eastern Europe: Convergence towards a Common Model?’, Governance 22(3), 2009, pp. 397-430.
Dobbins, M., Higher Education Policies in Central and Eastern Europe: Convergence towards a common model?, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2011.
Dür, A. and D. De Bièvre, ‘The Question of Interest Group Influence’, Journal of Public Policy 27(1), 2007, pp. 1-12.
Dür, A., ‘Interest Groups in the EU and how powerful are they?’, West European Politics 31(6), 2008.
Duvanova, D., ‘Interest groups in post-communist countries: a comparative analysis of business and employer associations’, PhD Thesis, Ohio State University, 2007.
Easter, G., ‘Preference for presidentialism: Postcommunist regime change in Russia and the NIS’, World Politics 45, 1997, pp. 184-211.
Eising, R., ‘Institutional context, organizational resources and strategic choices explaining interest group access in the EU’, European Union Politics 8(3), 2007, pp. 329-362.
Eising, R., ‘Interest Groups in EU Policy-Making’, Living Reviews in European Governance 3(4), 2008, pp. 4-32.
Fink-Hafner, D., ‘Interest Representation in Post-Communist Parliaments over Two Decades’, Journal of Legislative Studies 17(2), 2011, pp. 215-233.
Fink-Hafner, D., ‘Organized interests in the policy-making process in Slovenia’, Journal of European Public Policy 5(2), 1998, pp. 285-302.
Grabbe, H., ‘How does Europeanization affect CEE governance? Conditionality, Diffusion and Diversity’, Journal of European Public Policy 8(6),2001, pp. 1013-1031.
Grande, E., ‘The State and Interest Groups in a Framework of Multi-Level Decision Making: The Case of the European Union’, Journal of European Public Policy 3(3), 1996, pp. 318-338.
Hall, P. and D. Soskice, ‘An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism’, in: P. A. Hall and D. Soskice (eds), Varieties of Capitalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, pp. 1-68.
Hannan, M. and J. Freemann, ‘The Population Ecology of Organizations’, American Journal of Sociology 82(5), 1977, pp. 929-964.
Hellman, J., ‘Winners take all: The politics of partial reform in post-communist transitions’, World Politics 50(2), 1998, pp. 203-234.
Howard, M. D., The Weakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Ikstens, J. and M. Pinto-Duschinsky, D. Smilov, M. Walecki, ‘Political finance in Central Eastern Europe: an interim report’, Österreichische Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft 31(1), 2002, pp. 21-39.
Kitschelt, H. and Z. Mansfeldova, R. Markowski, G. Toka, Post-Communist Party Systems, Competition, Representation, and Inter-Party Cooperation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Klüver, H., ‘Lobbying as a collective enterprise: Winners and losers of policy formulation in the European Union’, Journal of European Public Policy 14(3), 2012, pp. 59-76.
Knill, C. and D. Lehmkuhl, ‘How Europe Matters: Different Mechanisms of Europeanization’, European Integration Online Papers 3(7), 1999.
Krouwel, A., ‘Measuring presidentialism of Central and East European countries’, Working Papers Political Science no. 02/2003.
Lasswell, H., Politics: Who Gets What, When, How, Cleveland: Whittlesey House, 1936.
Lewis, P., ‘Party systems in Post-communist Central Europe: patterns of stability and consolidation’, Democratization 13(4), 2006, pp. 562-583.
Lohmann, S., ‘An Information Rationale for the Power of Special Interests’, American Political Science Review 92(4), 1998, pp. 809-827.
Lowery, D., ‘Lobbying influence: Meaning, measurement and missing’, Interest Groups and Advocacy 2(1), 2013, pp. 1-26.
Mahoney, C., ‘Lobbying success in the United States and the European Union’, Journal of Public Policy 27(1), 2007, pp. 35-56.
Mahoney, C., ‘The power of institutions: state and interest groups activity in the European Union’, European Union Politics 5(4), 2004, pp. 441-466.
Martinsen, D. S. and K. Vrangbæk, ‘The Europeanization of Health Care Governance: Implementing the market imperatives of Europe’, Public Administration 86(1), 2008, pp. 169-184.
McAllister, I. and S. White, ‘Political Parties and Democratic Consolidation in Post-Communist Societies’, Party Politics 13(2), 2007, pp. 197-216.
McGrath, C., ‘The development and regulation of lobbying in the new member states of the European Union’, Journal of Public Affairs 8(1), 2008, pp. 15-32.
Miller, L., The Perils of Federalism: Race, Poverty and the Politics of Crime Control, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Olson, M., The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.
Ost, D., ‘Illusory Corporatism in Eastern Europe: Neoliberal Tripartism and Postcommunist Class Identities’, Politics and Society 28(4), 2000, pp. 503-530.
Pedersen, O. and C. Ronit, J. Hausner, ‘Organized Interests and the Labor Market in Post-Communist Europe’, American Behavioral Scientist 38(5), 1995, pp. 741-759.
Pérez-Solórzano Borragán, N., ‘EU Accession and Interest Politics in Central and Eastern Europe’, Perspectives on European Politics and Society 5(2), 2004, pp. 243-272.
Pleines, H., ‘Social partners and captors. The role of non-state actors in economic policy-making in Eastern Europe’, Romanian Journal of Political Science 4(1), 2004, pp. 51-65.
Pleines, H., ‘Weakness as precondition of smooth integration?’, Journal of European Integration 33(4), 2011, pp. 507-521.
Pollack, M. A., ‘Representing diffuse interests in EC policy-making’, Journal of European Public Policy 4(4), 1997, pp. 572-590.
Ramet, S., Central and southeast European politics since 1989, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Rechel, B. and M. McKee, ‘Health reform in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union’, The Lancet 374, 2009, pp. 1186-1195.
Richardson, J., ‘Government, Interest Groups and Policy Change’, Political Studies 48, 2000, pp. 1006-1025.
Riedel, R., ‘European Patient’s Cross Border Mobility Directive’, Public Health 139, 2016, pp. 222-223.
Riedel, R., ‘Europeanisation as a Research Strand in EU Studies’, Studia Europejskie 2(46), 2008, pp. 209-222.
Riedel, R., ‘Political Economy of the Emission Reduction Measures’, Central European Political Studies (3), 2015, pp. 27-43.
Riedel, R., Supranationalisation of Energy Security In Europe. Theoretical Approaches, Warszawa: Centrum Europejskie Natolin, no. 40, 2010.
Roberts, A., ‘The Politics of Healthcare Reform in Postcommunist Europe: The Importance of Access’, Journal of Public Policy 29:3, 2009, pp. 305-325.
Rose, R., Understanding Post-Communist Transformation: A bottom-up approach, Routledge, 2008.
Rose-Ackerman, S., ‘From Elections to Democracy in Central Europe: Public Participation and the Role of Civil Society’, East European Politics and Societies 21(1), 2007, pp. 31-47.
Schmitter, P., ‘The consolidation of democracy and representation of social groups’, American Behavioral Scientist 35(4-5), 1992, pp. 422-449.
Siaroff, A., ‘Corporatism in 24 Industrial Democracies’, European Journal of Political Research 36(2), 1999, pp. 175-205.
Sprūds, A., Latvian energy policy: towards a sustainable and transparent energy sector, Riga: Soros Foundation Latvia, 2010.
Streeck, W. and P. Schmitter, The organization of business interests: Studying the associative action of business in advanced industrial societies, Cologne: Max-Planck-Institut, 1999.
Šimral, V., The funding and oversight of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns in Central and Eastern Europe, Prague: Frank Bold, 2015.
Wallace, C. and F. Pichler, C. Haerpfer, ‘Changing Patterns of Civil Society in Europe and America 1995-2005’, East European Politics and Society 26(3), 2012, pp. 3-19.
Weßels, B., ‘Contestation Potential of Interest Groups in the EU: Emergence, Structure, and Political Alliances’, in: G. Marks and M. R. Steenbergen (eds), European Integration and Political Conflict, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 195-215.

Article

Public Policy in Poland in Context of Tendencies Unfolding in Central Europe. Conclusions from Case Studies (en translation)

Views count: 508
A specific feature of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe is that they lack the tradition of creating public policies using methods similar to those applied in mature democracies. And the consequences of this lack of tradition remain visible today, notwithstanding the fact that communism fell over 25 years ago now. For the potential for programming actions (policy capacity), as well as for implementing policies effectively and evaluating them, remains limited. The author presents the results of one of the few studies to be carried out on public policy in Poland. The aim has been to test a research hypothesis pertaining to the circumstances in which public policy in regard to an emergent problem is formulated. The creation of such a policy was in fact found to depend on a constellation of three factors: a significant threat to stability under a given policy, decision-makers who think that legislative tools for action are enough to achieve the desired result, and an emergent dominant stakeholder who achieves a decisive influence over the decision-making process.

Andrzej Zybała, ‘Public Policy in Poland in Context of Tendencies Unfolding in Central Europe. Conclusions from Case Studies’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2018, pp. 81-103.

Beyer, J., ‘Acting in good time – conceptual reflection on the sequencing of political reform processes’, Central European Journal of Public Policy, vol. 6, no. 2, 2012, pp. 4-29.
Cent, J. and M. Grodzińska-Jurczak, A. Pietrzyk-Kaszyńska, ‘Emerging multilevel environmental governance – A case of public participation in Poland’, Journal for Nature Conservation, vol. 22, 2014, pp. 93-102.
Colebatch, H. K., ‘Policy, learning and regime change: Western concepts and CEE experience’, Central European Journal of Public Policy, vol. 11, no. 2, 2018, pp. 2-10.
Evans, B. and A. Veselý, ‘Contemporary policy work in subnational governments and NGOs: Comparing evidence from Australia, Canada and the Czech Republic’, Policy and Society, vol. 33, no. 2, 2014, pp. 77-87.
Evans, B. and A. Veselý, A. Wellstead, ‘Comparing sub-national policy workers in Canada and the Czech Republic: Who are they, what they do, and why it matters?’, Policy and Society, vol. 33, no. 2, 2014, pp. 103-115.
Fazekas, M. and T. Burns, ‘Exploring the Complex Interaction Between Governance and Knowledge in Education’, OECD Education Working Papers, no. 67, 2012.
Hausner, J., Pętle rozwoju. O polityce gospodarczej lat 2001-2005 [The loops of development. Economic policy in the years 2001-2005], Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, 2007.
Heimpold, G., ‘Growth versus equalisation? An examination of strategies for regional policy in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland after EU accession’, Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft, vol. 28, 2008, pp. 1-29.
Hryniewicz, J., Stosunki pracy w polskich organizacjach [Labour relations in Polish organizations], Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Scholar, 2007.
Kolasa, K. and J. Dohnalik, E. Borek, M. Siemiątkowski, C. Ścibiorski, ‘The paradox of public participation in the healthcare in Poland – What citizens want, and what they think’, Health Policy, vol. 118, 2014, pp. 159-165.
Lasswell, H. D., Preview of Policy Sciences, New York: American Elsevier Publishing, 1971.
Mieńkowska-Norkienė, R., ‘Efficiency of coordination of European policies at domestic level – challenging Polish coordination system’, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 143, 2014, pp. 867-871.
Moschitz, H. and M. Stolze, ‘The influence of policy networks on policy output. A comparison of organic farming policy in the Czech Republic and Poland’, Food Policy, vol. 35, 2010, pp. 247-255.
Nemec, J., ‘Public Policy in the Czech Republic’, Central European Journal of Public Policy, vol. 9, no. 1, 2015.
Nemec, J. and M. Pavlík, I. Malý, Z. Kotherová, ‘Health policy in the Czech Republic: General character and selected interesting aspects’, Central European Journal of Public Policy, vol. 9, no. 1, 2015, pp. 102-113.
Olejniczak, K., ‘Focusing on Success: A Review of Everyday Practices of Organizational Learning in Public Administration’, in: S. Bohni Nielsen and R. Turksema, P. van der Knaap (eds), Success in Evaluation. Focusing on the Positives, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2015, p. 99-124.
Olejniczak, K., ‘Mechanisms shaping an evaluation system – A case study of Poland 1999-2010’, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 65, no. 8, 2013, pp. 1642-1666.
Olejniczak, K. and E. Raimondo, T. Kupiec, ‘Evaluation units as knowledge brokers: Testing and calibrating an innovative framework’, Evaluation, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 168-189.
Olejniczak K. and P. Śliwowski, R. Trzciński, ‘The Role of Analysts in Public Agencies: Toward an Empirically Grounded Typology’, in: Wu Xun and M. Howlett, M. Ramesh (eds), Policy Capacity and Governance: Assessing Governmental Competences and Capabilities in Theory and Practice, Palgrave Studies in the Political Economy of Public Policy, Palgrave 2017, pp. 151-178.
Pal, L. A., Beyond Policy Analysis. Public Issue Management in Turbulent Times, Toronto: Nelson Education, 2011.
Parsons, W., Public Policy. An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Policy Analysis, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2001.
Pierre, J. and B. G. Peters, Governing complex societies: trajectories and scenarios, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Potůček, M., ‘Czech public policy as a scientific discipline and object of research’, Central European Journal of Public Policy, vol. 1, no. 1, 2007, pp. 102-121.
Potůček, M., ‘Havel versus Klaus: Public Policy Making in the Czech Republic’, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, vol. 1, no. 2, 1999, pp. 163-176.
Potůček M. and L. T. LeLoup, ‘Approaches to Public Policy in Central and Eastern Europe’, in: M. Potůček and L. T. LeLoup, G. Jenei, L. Varadi (eds), Public Policy in Central and Eastern Europe: Theories, Methods, Practices, Bratislava: NISPACEE, 2003, pp. 11-26.
Potluka, O. (ed.), Impact of EU cohesion policy in central Europe, Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag GmbH, 2010.
Rybiński, K. (ed.), Rola grup interesów w procesie stanowienia prawa w Polsce [The role of interest groups in the process of lawmaking in Poland], Warszawa: Vistula University, 2012.
Sroka, J., Europejskie stosunki przemysłowe w perspektywie porównawczej [European industrial relations in a comparative perspective], Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2000.
Staniszkis, J., Postkomunizm [Post-communism], Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo słowo/obraz/terytoria, 2001.
Veselý, A. and M. Nekola, E. M. Hejzlarová, Policy analysis in the Czech Republic, Bristol Policy Press 2016.
Włodarczyk, C., Reformy zdrowotne. Uniwersalny kłopot [Health care reforms. A universal issue], Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 2003.
Young, E. and L. Quinn, Writing Effective Public Policy Papers. A Guide for Policy Advisers in Central and Eastern Europe, Budapest: Open Society Institute, 2002.
Zybała A., ‘Polityka publiczna w warunkach socjologicznej próżni’ [Public policy in a sociological vacuum], Kultura i Społeczeństwo, vol. 4, 2015, pp. 25-47.
Zybała, A., Polski umysł na rozdrożu [The Polish mind at a crossroad], Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH, 2016.
Zybała, A., Prawidłowości w procesie formułowania polityk publicznych w Polsce. Raport z badań [Characteristic features of the process of public policy formulation in Poland. Research report], Warszawa: Collegium Civitas, 2014.
Zybertowicz, A., ‘Anti-Development Interest Groups’, Polish Sociological Review, no. 149, 2005, pp. 69-90.

Article

The Institutional Design of Audiovisual Media Regulators: Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe

Views count: 591
The role played by National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) as key institutional actors in the governance of various sectors has attracted substantial scholarly interest. Much of the literature examines why governments allow the creation of independent regulatory authorities, and how these bodies retain their independence. In contrast to the rich literature on the regulation of utility sectors, the number of studies dealing with the audiovisual media sector is rather limited. This study addresses this gap and provides an extensive comparative analysis of the institutional design of national media regulators in 12 Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. It introduces a revised typology of media regulators, complementing current classifications, by answering two research questions: What are the main institutional characteristics of media regulators in CEE countries? To what extent do media watchdogs share similarities or display differences regarding the institutional setups? The analysis focuses on scrutinising the organisational design, funding, accountability mechanisms and regulatory competencies.

Adriana Mutu, ‘The Institutional Design of Audiovisual Media Regulators: Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2018, pp. 105-122.

Balabanova, E., Comparing the Incomparable in Western and Eastern Europe, Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Balčytienė, A., ‘Dependencies, Parallelisms, and Connections: Central and East European Media as Systems in Flux’, Media Transformations, vol. 8, no. 48, 2012, pp. 48-70.
Baldwin, R. and C. Scott, C. Hood, A Reader on Regulation, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
European Council, Directive 2010/13/EU, Brussels, 10 March 2010, eur-lex. europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2010:095:0001:0024:E N:PDF.
Ginosar, A. and O. Krispil, ‘Broadcasting regulation and the public interest: Independent versus governmental agencies’, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 93, 2015, pp. 946-966.
Hallin, D. C. and S. Papathanassopoulos, ‘Political Clientelism and the Media: Southern Europe and Latin America in Comparative Perspective’, Media, Culture & Society, vol. 24, no. 2, 2002, pp. 175-195.
Hans Bredow Institute, Indicators for Independence and Efficient Functioning of Audiovisual Media Services Regulatory Bodies for the Purpose of Enforcing the Rules in the AVMS Directive (INDIREG), Brussels: European Commission, 2011.
Humphreys, P., Mass Media and Media Policy in Western Europe, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996.
ICT Regulation Toolkit 2016, http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org/6.
Jakubowicz, K., ‘Normative Models of Media and Journalism and Broadcasting Regulation in Central and Eastern Europe’, International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, vol. 2, 1998, pp. 1-31.
Jakubowicz, K., ‘Post-communist Political Systems and Media Freedom and Independence’, in: J. Downey and S. S. Mihelj (eds), Central and Eastern European Media in Comparative Perspective: Politics, Economy and Culture, England: Ashgat, 2012, pp. 15-40.
Jakubowicz, K., ‘Public Service Broadcasting in Post-Communist Countries: Finding the Right Place on the Map’, in: K. Jakubowicz and M. Sükösd (eds), Finding the Right Place on the Map: Central and Eastern European Media Change in a Global Perspective, Bristol: Intellect Books, 2008, pp. 101-124.
Jordana, J. and D. Levi-Faur (eds), The Politics of Regulation: Institutions and Regulatory Reforms for the Age of Governance, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004.
Mitnick, B. M., The Political Economy of Regulation: Creating, Designing, and Removing Regulatory Forms, New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
Mutu, A., ‘Media And Democracy. A Theoretical Design For Cross-Country Comparative Research On Broadcasting Regulation’, in: H. Sousa et al. (eds), Media Policy and Regulation: Activating Voices, Illuminating Silences, University of Minho, Communication and Society Research Centre (CECS), 2013, pp. 11-33.
Mutu, A., ‘The regulatory independence of audiovisual media regulators: A cross-national comparative analysis’, European Journal of Communication, online first, 2018, pp.1-20, https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323118790153.
Mutu, A., ‘The Role of Communication Research in Media Policy-Making: An Analysis of Media Independence in Europe’, in: A. Popa and F. Ioncioaia (eds), Proceedings of the 2nd CommScie International Conference “Challenges for Sciences and Society in Digital Era”, CommScie School of Postdoctoral Studies and Research, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania, 2015, pp. 147-149.
Mutu, A. and J. Botella Corral, ‘Broadcasting Regulation in Europe. A Theoretical Design for Comparative Research’, Trípodos, vol. 1, no. 32, 2013, pp. 13-28.
Namurois, A., Structure and Organization of Broadcasting in the Framework of Radiocommunications, Geneva: European Broadcasting Union, 1972.
Nieminen, H., ‘Towards Democratic Regulation of European Media and Communication’, in: B. Klimkiewicz, Media Freedom and Pluralism: Media Policy Challenges in the Enlarged Europe, Budapest: Central European University Press, 2009, pp. 3-26.
Psychogiopoulou, E. and D. Anagnostou, ‘Recasting the Contours of Media Policy In a Political Context: An Introduction’, in: E. Psychogiopoulou (ed.), Understanding Media Policies: A European Perspective, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, pp. 1-20.
Schulz W. and P. Valcke, K. Irion, The Independence of the Media and its Regulatory Agencies. Shedding New Light on Formal and Actual Independence against the National Context, Bristol, Chicago, IL: Intellect, 2013.
Sousa, H. and W. Trützschler, J. Fidalgo, M. Lameiras (eds), Media Regulators in Europe: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis, Braga: Communication and Society Research Centre (CECS), University of Minho, 2013, http://www.lasics.uminho.pt/ojs/index.php/cecs_ebooks/issue/view/118/showToc.
Spyrelli, C., ‘Regulating the Regulators? An Assessment of Institutional Structures and Procedural Rules of National Regulatory Authorities’, International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, vol. 8, 2013, pp. 1-65.
Talbot, C., ‘The Agency Idea. Sometimes Old, Sometimes New, Sometimes Borrowed, Sometimes Untrue’, in: C. Pollitt and C. Talbot (eds), Unbundled Government. A Critical Analysis of the Global Trend to Agencies, Quangos and Contractualisation, London: Routledge, 2004, pp. 3-20.
Thatcher, M. and A. S. Sweet, ‘Theory and Practice of Delegation to Non-Majoritarian Institutions’, West European Politics, vol. 25, no. 1, 2002, pp. 1-22.
Tenbücken, M. and V. Schneider, ‘Divergent Convergence: Structures and Functions of National Regulatory Authorities in the Telecommunications Sector’, in: J. Jordana and D. Levi-Faur (eds), The Politics of Regulation: Institutions and Regulatory Reforms for the Age of Governance, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2004, pp. 245-272.
Wasicka, M. and A. Mickiewicz, ‘Politicisation of the Polish media or mediatisation of Polish politics? Where the world of the media and politics permeate’, Central European Political Studies, no. 1, 2014, pp. 141-156.

Article

European Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes on Polish Borders: Determinants of Cross-Border Effects, Weaknesses and Necessary Changes

Views count: 513
European cross-border cooperation programmes (ECCPs) implemented on Polish borders during two completed programming periods (2004-2006 and 2007-2013) had a positive impact on border regions the programmes covered. At the same time, their weaknesses, identified in the subject matter literature, did not allow full use of the potential of cross-border cooperation. The aim of the paper is to show the most important weaknesses of the programmes and to propose ways to overcome them. The first way to do so is to analyse the main determinants of the so-called ‘cross-border effects’ (CBEs). The second idea is to characterise and evaluate the institutional system of the ECCPs The third way is to propose a systemic solution to the problems with the ECCPs. It is proposed in the form of a strategic approach to borderlands development. Finally, the weaknesses of the ECCPs are divided into ‘technical’ and ‘chronic’ ones, with outlining the appropriate measures for limiting both categories.

Andrzej J. Żuk, ‘European Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes on Polish Borders: Determinants of Cross-Border Effects, Weaknesses and Necessary Changes’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2018, pp. 123-140.

ADE, ‘Ex-post Evaluation of Cohesion Policy Programmes 2007-2013, Focusing on the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the Cohesion Fund (CF) – Final Report: Main Report’, July 2016, http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/evaluation/pdf/expost2013/wp11_final_report.pdf [2016-10-10].
Barca, F., ‘An Agenda for a Reformed Cohesion Policy, A Place-Based Approach to Meeting European Union Challenges and Expectations’, Independent Report Prepared at the Request of Danuta Hübner, Commissioner for Regional Policy, April 2009, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2009_2014/documents/regi/dv/barca_report_/barca_report_en.pdf [2014-12-05].
Blatter, J., ‘From “Spaces of Place” to “Spaces of Flows”? Territorial and Functional Governance in Cross-Border Regions in Europe and North America’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 28, no. 3, 2004, pp. 530-548.
Blatter, J. and N. Clement, ‘European Perspectives on Borderlands’, paper presented at European Regional Science Association conference, Dublin, August 1999.
Ciok, S., ‘Pogranicze zachodnie Polski w perspektywie integracji europejskiej’ [The western borderland of Poland in the perspective of European integration], Studia Regionalne i Lokalne, vol. 1, no. 1, 2000, pp. 91-104.
Ciok, S. et al., ‘Polska–Niemcy. Współpraca i konkurencja na pograniczu’ [Poland–Germany. Cooperation and competition in the borderland], Studia Geograficzne, vol. 81, Wrocław: Wyd. Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2008.
Cotella, G., ‘The Importance of the Operational Dimension in Cross-Border Initiatives: Italy Looks South-East’, EUROPA XXI, vol. 16, 2007, pp. 131-152.
Dołzbłasz, S., ‘Sieci współpracy transgranicznej na pograniczach Polski’ [Cross-border cooperation networks in the Polish borderlands], Rozprawy Naukowe Instytutu Geografii i Rozwoju Regionalnego, vol. 40, Wrocław: Wyd. Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2017.
Dołzbłasz, S. and A. Raczyk, ‘New Versus Old Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes in the Example of Polish-Czech and Polish-German Border Areas’, EUROPA XXI, vol. 16, 2007, pp. 153-165.
Dołzbłasz, S. and A. Raczyk, ‘Relationships Between Actors of Transborder Co-operation. Polish-German Borderland Case Study’, EUROPA XXI, vol. 20, 2010, pp. 119-129.
Dołzbłasz, S. and A. Raczyk, ‘The Role of the Integrating Factor in the Shaping of Transborder Cooperation’, Quaestiones Geographicae, vol. 29, no. 4, 2010, pp. 65-73.
Dołzbłasz, S. and A. Raczyk, Współpraca transgraniczna w Polsce po akcesji do UE [Cross-border cooperation in Poland after EU accession], Warszawa: Wolters Kluwer Business, 2010.
ESPON, ‘TERCO: European Territorial Co-operation as a Factor of Growth, Jobs and Quality of Life – Final Report: Main Report’, January 2013, http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/AppliedResearch/TERCO/Final_Report/TERCO_FR_MainReport_Dec2012.pdf [2015-05-29].
Huk, M. and M. Molak, ‘Badanie ewaluacyjne polityki spójności w wymiarze terytorialnym – tworzenie funkcjonalnych obszarów transgranicznych’ [Evaluation study of the territorial dimension of the cohesion policy – creation of functional cross-border areas], Raport ewaluacyjny, 2011, http://www.ofim.pl/dokument_do_pobrania/raport_ewaluacyjny.pdf [2014-06-15].
Klimczak, T. et al., ‘Efekty transgranicznej współpracy polskich regionów w okresie 2004-2006 – Raport końcowy’ [The effects of cross-border cooperation of Polish regions in the period 2004-2006 – Final report], Warszawa: MRR, 2010.
Knippschild, R., ‘Cross-Border Cooperation as a Tool for Urban Development in Border Regions?’, Europa XXI, vol. 13, 2005, pp. 123-128.
Kozak, M. et al., ‘Ekspertyza pt. Wyzwania i cele dla programów współpracy transgranicznej z udziałem Polski po 2013 roku’ [Expertise: Challenges and goals for cross-border cooperation programmes with Poland’s participation after 2013], October 2012, https://www.ewt.2007-2013.gov.pl/Wiadomosci/Documents/ekspertyza_EWT_po_2013.pdf [2015-09-13].
Krok, K., ‘Współpraca przygraniczna jako czynnik rozwoju lokalnego’ [Cross-border cooperation as a factor of local development], in: G. Gorzelak (ed.), Polska regionalna i lokalna w świetle badań EUROREG-u [Regional and local Poland in the light of EUROREG research], Warszawa: Wyd. Scholar, 2007, pp. 212-235.
Mirwaldt, K. and I. McMaster, J. Bachtler, ‘Reconsidering Cohesion Policy: The Contested Debate on Territorial Cohesion’, EoRPA Paper 08/5, March 2009, http://www.eprc.strath.ac.uk/Eorpa/Documents/EoRPA_08_Papers/EoRPA_08-5.pdf [2015-05-30].
Miszczuk, A., Uwarunkowania peryferyjności regionu przygranicznego [Conditions of border region peripherality], Lublin: Norbertinum, 2013.
O’Dowd, L., ‘The Changing Significance of European Borders’, in: J. Anderson and L. O’Dowd, T. M. Wilson (eds), New Borders for a Changing Europe: Cross-Border Cooperation and Governance, London: F. Cass, 2003, pp. 13-36.
OECD, ‘Regions and Innovation: Collaborating across Borders’, OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation, OECD Publishing, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264205307-en [2015-05-28].
Olejniczak, K., ‘Rola Programu Współpracy Przygranicznej PHARE w rozwoju lokalnym województw zachodnich’ [The role of the PHARE Cross-Border Cooperation Programme in the local development of Western voivodships], in: G. Gorzelak (ed.), Polska regionalna i lokalna w świetle badań EUROREG-u [Regional and local Poland in the light of EUROREG research], Warszawa: Wyd. Scholar, 2007, pp. 236-258.
Panteia, ‘INTERREG III Community Initiative (2000-2006) Ex-Post Evaluation. Final Report’, May 2010, http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/evaluation/pdf/expost2006/interreg_final_report_23062010.pdf [2015-05-14].
Perkmann, M., ‘Euroregions: Institutional Entrepreneurship in the European Union’, in: M. Perkmann and N.-L. Sum (eds), Globalization, Regionalization and Cross-Border Regions, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, pp. 103-124.
Perkmann, M., ‘Building Governance Institutions Across European Borders’, Regional Studies, vol. 33, no. 7, 1999, pp. 657-667.
Raczyk, A. and S. Dołzbłasz, M. Leśniak-Johann, Relacje współpracy i konkurencji na pograniczu polsko-niemieckim [Relationships of cooperation and competition in the Polish-German borderlands], Wrocław: Gaskor, 2012.
Regulation (EU) No 1299/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 December 2013 on specific provisions for the support from the European Regional Development Fund to the European territorial cooperation goal, L 347/259, 20 December 2013.
Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 966/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on the financial rules applicable to the general budget of the Union and repealing Council Regulation (EC, Euratom) No 1605/2002, L 298/1, 26 October 2012.
Scott, J. W., ‘European and American Contexts for Cross-border Regionalism’, Regional Studies, vol. 33, no. 7, 1999, pp. 605-617.
Szlachta, J., ‘Wyzwania przed europejską polityką spójności’ [Challenges for the European cohesion policy], in: J. Stacewicz (ed.), Polityka gospodarcza w poszukiwaniu nowego paradygmatu [Economic policy in search of a new paradigm], Prace i Materiały Instytutu Rozwoju Gospodarczego SGH, vol. 92, Warszawa: Wyd. Szkoły Głównej Handlowej w Warszawie, 2013, pp. 213-239.
Szmigiel-Rawska, K. and S. Dołzbłasz, Trwałość współpracy przygranicznej [Durability of cross-border cooperation], Warszawa: CeDeWu, 2012.
Szmigiel-Rawska, K. et al., ‘Raport końcowy z badania: Wpływ polityki spójności na rozwój przygranicznej i ponadnarodowej współpracy terytorialnej polskich regionów w perspektywie 2007-2013’ [Final report from the study: The impact of cohesion policy on the development of cross-border and transnational territorial cooperation of Polish regions in the perspective of 2007-2013], 2016, https://www.ewaluacja.gov.pl/media/18792/Raport.pdf [2017-01-10].
Tomaszewski, K., Regiony w procesie integracji europejskiej [Regions in the process of European integration], Warszawa: Wolters Kluwer, 2007.
Żuk, A., Znaczenie europejskich programów współpracy transgranicznej Polski z państwami członkowskimi Unii Europejskiej [The importance of European cross-border cooperation programmes on Polish borders with the European Union Member States], niepublikowana rozprawa doktorska [unpublished doctoral dissertation], Warszawa: Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie, 2017.

Article

‘Polish, Hungarian, Cousins Be’: Comparative Discourse on Muslims and the Refugee Crisis in Europe

Views count: 597
Hungary and Poland used to have much in common, as the saying in the title suggests. Yet, it seems that in recent years, this phrase has acquired new meaning as both countries became enfants terrible in EU politics. One of the earliest and most significant indicators of this change was their stance towards Muslims and refugees during the 2014 crisis in Europe. The paper analyses how the similar historical development in both countries and ethnic interests shaped their domestic and international policy towards symbolic and real benefits from the crisis even though the refugees in Hungary left at the beginning of 2016 and Poland had not even been touched by it. For that purpose, the political and social discourse on Muslims and the refugee crisis in Hungary and Poland were compared. Interestingly, both countries lack any significant Muslim or refugee communities and so their anti-Muslim and antirefugee sentiments have to be framed around an EU narrative. Thus, Hungarian and Polish membership in the EU seems to be modulated in relation to the refugee crisis and European Muslim communities and used to further the national political agenda.

Katarzyna Górak-Sosnowska, Irina Molodikova, ‘‘Polish, Hungarian, Cousins Be’: Com-parative Discourse on Muslims and the Refugee Crisis in Europe’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2018, pp. 141-158.

Al Jazeera, ‘Hungary awaits Muslim tourists while promoting anti-refugee rhetoric’, Aljazeera, 31 December 2015, america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/12/31/hungary-awaits-muslim-tourists-while-promotinganti-refugee-rhetoric.html [2018-08-08].
Bayraklı, E. and F. Hafez, Introduction, in: E. Bayraklı and F. Hafez, European Islamophobia Report 2014, SETA, Istanbul, 2015.
Carnegie Europe, ‘Witold Waszczykowski and the new sound from Warsaw’, 16 March 2016, carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/?fa=63057[2018-08-08].
CBOS, Stosunek Polaków do przyjmowania uchodźców [Attitude of Poles towards accepting refugees], Warszawa, 2016.
Deutsche Welle, ‘Outcome – Visegrad leaders: Merkel meets European critics of her refugee policies’, Deutsche Welle, 26 August 2016, www.dw.com/en/visegrad-leaders-merkel-meets-european-critics-of-her-refugee-policies/a-19504957 [2018-08-08].
Eurobarometer, Public Opinion in the European Union, European Commission, 2015.
European Parliament, Report on the situation of fundamental rights: standards and practices in Hungary (pursuant to the European Parliament resolution of 16 February 2012), (2012/2130(INI)), 24 June 2013.
Eurostat, Asylum Quarterly Report, 9 December 2015, ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Asylum_quarterly_report [2018-08-08].
Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Intolerance, Prejudice and Discrimination. A European Report, Berlin 2011.
Gazeta.pl, ‘Debata o uchodźcach. Kaczyński: „We Włoszech kościoły traktowane są jak toalety”. Kopacz nie wytrzymuje’ [Debate about refugees. Kaczyński: “In Italy churches are treated as toilets”. Kopacz cannot stand it], Gazeta.pl, 16 September 2015, http://wyborcza.pl/1,75398,18830888,debatao-uchodzcach-kaczynski-we-wloszech-koscioly-traktowane.html [2018-08-08].
Gazeta.pl, ‘Jarosław Kaczyński boi się, że uchodźcy sprowadzą zarazę? Tak mówił na wyborczym wiecu’ [Jarosław Kaczyński is afraid that refugees will disseminate plague], Gazeta.pl, 13 October 2015, http://wyborcza.pl/1,75398,19014711,kaczynski-boi-sie-zarazy.html [2018-08-08].
Gazeta.pl, ‘Sejm przegłosował: Nie dla uchodźców. To oni są powodem napięć’ [Sejm has voted: No to refugees. They cause tensions], Gazeta.pl, 1 April 2016, http://wyborcza.pl/1,75398,19851173,sejm-przeglosowal-nie-dlauchodzcow-to-oni-sa-powodem-napiec.html [2018-08-08].
Gellner, E., Nations and Nationalism, Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.
Górny, A. and D. Pudzianowska, EUDO Citizenship Observatory Country Report: Poland, June 2013.
HVG, ‘Nyilvános a lista az elismert egyházakról’ [Official list of recognized churches], 23 April 2012, http://hvg.hu/itthon/20120423_elismert_egyhazak[2018-08-08].
IPSOS, Perceptions are not reality: Things the world gets wrong, 29 October 2014, www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/3466/Perceptions-are-not-reality-Things-the-world-gets-wrong.aspx [2018-08-08].
IPSOS, Perils of Perception 2015. A 33 Country Study, 2015, www.ipsosmori.com/Assets/Docs/Polls/ipsos-perils-of-perception-charts-2015.pdf [2018-08-08].
Magyar Idök, ‘Azt akarjuk, hogy unokáink egy európai kalifátusban éljenek?’, Magyar Idök, 14 November 2015, magyaridok.hu/belfold/azt-akarjuk-hogy-az-unokaink-egy-europai-kalifatusban-eljenek-5035/ [2018-08-08].
Mazzucelli, C. G. and A. Visvizi, R. Bee, ‘Secular States in a “Security Community”: The Migration-Terrorism Nexus?’, Journal of Strategic Security 9(3), Fall 2016, pp. 16-27, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1944-0472.9.3.1545.
Molodikova, I., ‘Formation of new Muslim communities in new member states: the case of Hungary’, in: K. Górak-Sosnowska (ed.), Muslims in Poland and Eastern Europe. Widening the European Discourse on Islam, Warsaw: University of Warsaw, 2011, pp. 222-239.
Molodikova, I., ‘Guardian Opinion. The refugee crisis is waking old fears in central Europe’, The Guardian, 20 September 2015, www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/sep/20/refugees-hungary-croatia-muslimstensions[2018-08-08].
Pew Research Center, Europeans Fear Wave of Refugees Will Mean More Terrorism, Fewer Jobs, 11 July 2016, www.pewglobal.org/2016/07/11/europeans-fear-wave-of-refugees-will-mean-more-terrorism-fewer-jobs/ [2018-08-08].
Polskie Radio, ‘Rośnie liczba wniosków o status uchodźcy w Polsce’ [The number of asylum applications in Poland grows], Polskie Radio, 26 December 2015, http://www.polskieradio.pl/5/3/Artykul/1562174,Rosnie-liczba-wnioskow-o-status-uchodzcy-w-Polsce [2018-08-08].
Sereghy, Z., ‘Islamophobia in Hungary: National Report 2015’, in: E. Bayraklı and F. Hafez, European Islamophobia Report 2014, SETA, Istanbul, 2015.
Sputnik, ‘PR Gone Too Far: Hungary Politicians Capitalize on Refugee Tragedy’, Sputniknews, 11 October 2015, http://sputniknews.com/europe/20151011/1028324726/hungary-refugee-pr.html [2018-08-08].
Stankiewicz, A., ‘Niechęć do UE nową doktryną PiS’, Rzeczpospolita, 31 January 2016, http://www.rp.pl/eurosceptyczny_pis [2018-08-08].
Szentágotay, R., ‘Magyarországi Szunnita Muszlim közösségek az ideológia, integrációs politika, és a radikalizáció megelőzésének tükrében’ [Hungarian Sunni Islamic community – ideology, integration policy and preventing radicalisation], Le Monde Diplomatique, September 2015.
Visvizi, A., ‘Querying the Migration-Populism Nexus: Poland and Greece in Focus’, IED Discussion Paper, July 2017, Brussels: Institute of European Democrats (IED).

Article

The State, Diaspora Policy and Immigrant Organizations – Lessons from the Polish Case

Views count: 582
This paper examines the relations between immigrant organizations and the institutions of their state of origin as well as the influence of those relations on situation of such organizations. It focuses specifically on the case of Poland over the period 1989-2015 in which significant changes with regards to diaspora policy were introduced. In other words, a shift from a model based on capacity building policies to a model focused on extracting obligations from the diaspora has taken place. These changes have had considerable impact on the role and capacity of Polish immigrant organizations as well as their relations with the Polish state.

Witold Nowak, Michał Nowosielski, ‘The State, Diaspora Policy and Immigrant Organizations – Lessons from the Polish Case’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2018, pp. 159-176.

Agunias, D. R., Closing the Distance: how Governments Strengthen Ties with their Diasporas, Washington: Migration Policy Institute, 2009.
Barry, K., ‘Home and Away: The Construction of Citizenship in an Emigration Context’, New York University Law Review, vol. 81, no. 1, 2006, pp. 11-59.
Black, R. et al. (eds), A Continent Moving West? EU Enlargement and Labour Migration from Central and Eastern Europe, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010.
Bousetta, H., ‘Institutional theories of immigrant ethnic mobilisation: relevance and limitations’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, 2000, pp. 229-245.
Chałupczak, H. et al., ‘Polityka migracyjna Polski wobec najnowszej emigracji Polaków po 2004 roku’ [Migration policy of Poland towards the latest emigration of Poles after 2004], in: M. Lesińska et al. (eds), Dekada członkostwa Polski w UE. Społeczne skutki emigracji Polaków po 2004 roku [Decade of Poland’s membership in the EU. Social effects of Poles’ emigration after 2004], Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 2014.
Chander, A., ‘Homeward Bound’, New York University Law Review, vol. 81, no. 1, 2006, pp. 60-89.
Christensen, T. and P. Lægreid, New Public Management: the Transformation of Ideas and Practices, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003.
Czarniawska, B., Social science research: from field to desk, London – Thousand Oaks – New Dehli, Singapore: SAGE, 2014.
Délano, A., ‘The diffusion of diaspora engagement policies: A Latin American agenda’, Political Geography, vol. 41, 2014.
Elwert, G., ‘Probleme der Auslanderintegration. Gesellschaftliche Interaktion durch Binnenintegration’, Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, vol. 34, 1982, pp. 717-731.
Favell, A., ‘The New Face of East-West Migration in Europe’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 34, no. 5, 2008, pp. 701-716.
Fiń, A. et al., Polityka polonijna w ocenie jej wykonawców i adresatów [Polish diaspora policy in the assessment of its performers and recipients], Poznań: Instytut Zachodni, 2013, http://www.iz.poznan.pl/plik,pobierz,261,8ff9a6306c8f3856c2cc3a571da8fba2/791-IZ%20PP.11.2013.Polityka%20polonijna.pdf.
Fiń, A. et al., ‘Views and Attitudes of the Polish Community and Poles Living Abroad on the Policy Towards Polish Expatriate Communities’, Institute for Western Affairs Bulletin, vol. 148, 2013, http://www.iz.poznan.pl/plik,pobierz,263,7af97c1333b12b8ede4fb18bab1ac475/773-Polish%20community.pdf.
Gamlen, A., ‘Why Engage Diasporas?’, COMPAS Working Paper, vol. 08-63, 2008, https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/media/WP-2008-063-Gamlen_Why_Engage_Diasporas.pdf.
Gamlen, A., ‘Diaspora Engagement Policies: What are they, and what kinds of states use them?’, COMPAS Working Papers, vol. 06-32, 2006, https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/WP-2006-032-Gamlen_Diaspora_Engagement_Policies.pdf.
Garapich, M. P., ‘The Migration Industry and Civil Society: Polish Immigrants in the United Kingdom Before and After EU Enlargements’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 34, no. 5, 2008, pp. 735-752.
Gibbs, G. R., Analysing qualitative data, London: Sage, 2008.
Holmes, S. M. and H. Castañeda, ‘Representing the “European refugee crisis” in Germany and beyond: Deservingness and difference, life and death’, American Ethnologist, vol. 43, 2016.
Hung, C. K. R., ‘Immigrant nonprofit organizations in US metropolitan areas’, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 36, 2007, pp. 707-729.
Koopmans, R., ‘Migrant mobilization and political opportunities: variation among German cities and a comparison with the United Kingdom and the Netherlands’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 30, no. 3, 2004, pp. 449-470.
Krieger, H., Migration Trends in an Enlarged Europe, Quality of Life in Europe Series, Dublin: European Foundation for the Improvement and Living Conditions, 2005.
Lai, B., ‘Perspectives on Ethnicity: Old Wine in New Bottles’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 2, 1983, pp. 154-173.
MFA of Poland, Priorytety polskiej polityki zagranicznej 2012-2016 [Priorities of Polish foreign policy 2012-2016], 2012, http://www.msz.gov.pl/resource/aa1c4aec-a52f-45a7-96e5-06658e73bb4e:JCR.
MFA of Poland, Projekt „Rządowego programu współpracy z Polonią i Polakami za granicą” [The project of the Government program of cooperation with the Polish diaspora and Poles abroad], 2011, http://www.msz.gov.pl/resource/13ff6551-d8aa-4799-91d3-efe4660b1417.
MFA of Poland, Projekt „Rządowego programu współpracy z polską diasporą w latach 2015-2020” [The project of the Government program of cooperation with the Polish diaspora and Poles abroad for 2015-2020], 2014, http://www.msz.gov.pl/resource/f5c606f6-e411-4dcb-92d7-b7483406e69c:JCR.
MFA of Poland, Rządowy program współpracy z Polonią i Polakami za granicą w latach 2015-2020 [Government program of cooperation with the Polish diaspora and Poles abroad for 2015-2020], 2015, http://www.msz.gov.pl/resource/70a7021e-304c-4075-a812-18e5b3410966:JCR.
MFA of Poland, Rządowy program współpracy z Polonią i Polakami za granicą zaakceptowany na posiedzeniu Rady Ministrów w dniu 10.12.2002 r. [Government program of cooperation with the Polish diaspora and Poles abroad accepted at the meeting of the Council of Ministers on December 10, 2002], 2002, http://www.belgrad.msz.gov.pl/pl/polonia_w_serbii/rzadowy_program_wspolpracy_z_polonia/.
Nowosielski, M., Polish organizations in Germany – their present status and needs, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2012.
Nowosielski, M., Polskie organizacje w Niemczech. Stan i uwarunkowania [Polish organizations in Germany. Status and determinants], Poznań: Instytut Zachodni, 2016.
Nowosielski, M., ‘The Trap of Transnationalism – Polish Organizations in Germany’, Polish Sociological Review, vol. 175, no. 3, 2011, pp. 315-331.
Østergaard-Nielsen, E., International migration and sending countries: perceptions, policies and transnational relations, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmilan, 2003.
Ostrand, N., ‘The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States’, Journal on Migration and Human Security, vol. 3, 2015.
Owusu, Th. Y., ‘The Role of Ghanaian Immigrant Associations in Toronto, Canada’, International Migration Review, vol. 4, no. 34, 2000, p. 1158.
Pachocka, M. and A. Visvizi, ‘Rethinking the Twin Migration and Refugee Crises in Europe through the Lens of Safety and Security’, in: C. E. Pacheco Amaral et al. (eds), The European Union and the Eastern Partnership: Security Challenges, Chişinău, Tbilisi, Cernăuți: Tipografia “Print-Caro”, 2018.
Predelli, L. N., ‘Political and Cultural Ethnic Mobilisation: The Role of Immigrant Associations in Norway’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 34, no. 6, 2008, pp. 935-954.
Pries, L. and Z. Sezgin, ‘Migration, Organizations and Transnational Ties’, in: L. Pries and Z. Sezgin (eds), Cross Border Migrant Organizations in Comparative Perspective, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
Recchi, E., ‘Cross-State Mobility in the EU. Trends, Puzzles and Consequences’, European Societies, vol. 10, no. 2, 2008, pp. 197-224.
Rodriguez-Fraticelli, C. and C. Sanabria, A. Tirado, ‘Puerto Rican non-profit organisations in New York City’, in: H. E. Gallegos and M. O’Neill (eds), Hispanics in the Non-Profit Sector, New York: The Foundation Center, vol. 34, 1991.
Sardinha, J., Immigrant Associations, Integration and Identity: Angolan, Brazilian and Eastern European Communities in Portugal, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009.
Schmitter Heisler, B., ‘Immigrant Settlement and the Structure of Emergent Immigrant Communities in Western Europe’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 485, 1986, pp. 76-86.
Shevel, O., ‘The Post-Communist Diaspora Laws: Beyond the “Good Civic versus Bad Ethnic” Nationalism Dichotomy’, East European Politics & Societies, vol. 24, no. 1, 2010, pp. 159-187.
Stanton-Salazar, R. D., ‘A social capital framework for the study of institutional agents and of the empowerment of low-status youth’, Youth & Society, vol. 43, no. 3, 2011, pp. 1066-1109.
Uchwała nr 145/91 Rady Ministrów z dnia 5 listopada 1991 r. w sprawie współpracy z Polonią, emigracją i Polakami za granicą [Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 145/91 of November 5, 1991 on the cooperation with Polonia, emigration and Poleas abroad], 1991.
Zrinščak, S., ‘Local immigrant communities, welfare and culture: an integration/segregation dilemma’, in: E. Carmel and A. Cerami, T. Papadopoulos (eds), Migration and Welfare in the New Europe. Social Protection and the Challenges of Integration, Bristol: Policy Press, 2011.

Article

Looking for Environmental Migrants in the Receiving Country – the Example of Migrants from Chosen Countries of North Africa in Poland (en translation)

Views count: 521
The majority of the research investigating environmental migration is focused on source areas and little on host countries. As a consequence, a common approach to finding environmental migrants in the destination country is lacking. The aim of this paper is to present a mixed method with a quantitative (survey) and qualitative part (in-depth interviews) that was used to find environmental migrants in Poland. The research was carried out among Egyptians, Moroccans, and Tunisians. For research purposes, the definition of an environmental migrant was extended to three generations. Therefore, under investigation were the motivations and history of migration of the migrant himself, and his father and grandfather as well. The results show that environmental migrants in the destination country are a hard-to-survey population, as they comprise a group that is hard to sample, identify, find or contact, get to cooperate, and to interview. It was found, moreover, that limited knowledge regarding their father’s and grandfathers’ migration history and motivations limited the possibility to analyse how environment influenced the migration decisions of previous generations. The migration decision of the investigated migrants was influenced by other factors, such as education, marriage, or looking for a job. Although none of the investigated persons was an environmental migrant, the Moroccan interviewees mentioned the environment as a factor influencing the departure of people from their areas of origin. In the case of Egypt, however, it was difficult to link the migration decision to environmental factors.

Karolina Sobczak-Szelc, ‘Looking for Environmental Migrants in the Receiving Country – the Example of Migrants from Chosen Countries of North Africa in Poland’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2018, pp. 177-199.