ORCID: Tomasz Białowąs: 0000-0002-8898-9989
Edition: Lublin 2019
Citation method: T. Białowąs, Znaczenie korporacji międzynarodowych w eksporcie towarowym Polski na tle państw Europy Środkowej w latach 2004-2018, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 17 (2019), z. 1, s. 265-279, DOI: 10.36874/RIESW.2019.1.12.
The subject of the article is the assessment of the impact of international corporations’ activities on the development of Polish commodity exports against the background of Central European countries in 2004–2018. The detailed analysis covers changes in the value, dynamics, product and geographical structure of exports, the importance of foreign subsidiaries of international corporations in creating export potential and the share of foreign value added in gross exports. The conducted analysis showed a high degree of dependence of Polish exports, as well as those of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia on the operations of foreign subsidiaries of international corporations. Their share in the total exports exceeded 50% during the analyzed period, and 85% in the exports of cars and trucks, pharmaceuticals, tobacco products, computers, electronic and optical devices. An important factor in the development of exports is the phenomenon of international fragmentation of production processes. It causes an increase in trade turnover in subassemblies and intermediate goods. We can estimate the scale of production fragmentation by measuring the share of foreign value added in gross exports. The highest share of foreign value added occurred in the exports of Hungary and Slovakia and exceeded 40%. In Poland, foreign value added accounted for around 27% of gross exports. In all analyzed countries, foreign value added came mainly from the European Union countries, especially from Germany. In recent years, the share of intermediate goods imported from China has also been growing.