Keyword: Central Europe

Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1055
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Crude oil terminals in Central European countries in the era of the shift away from Russian commodities

There are six crude oil terminals in the Central European countries of the European Union, supplying a total of sixteen refineries, several of which are located outside the EU. Due to the ongoing Russian-Ukrainian war, these terminals have been unloading tankers from countries that have not previously supplied crude oil to these refineries, or if they have, sporadically, in 2023....

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1035
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

LNG terminals in Central Europe: importance and operation

There are several LNG regasification terminals in Central European countries, aimed at securing natural gas supplies from various directions. In the context of the outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian war, the importance of these terminals has definitely increased. At present, they are a key tool in efforts to diversify the sources and directions of natural gas supplies, especially...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1027
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Natural gas and crude oil markets in Central European countries in 2023

Central European countries in 2023 were taking active steps to strengthen energy security, which was a difficult process. A key strategic objective was to reduce dependence on hydrocarbons supplies from the Russian Federation by initiating new investments and continuing those already underway. Importantly, there are still countries on the continent that cooperate with Russia in...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 941
Bartosz Jóźwik - Baltic Team

Public Finance Sector Stability in Central European Countries (Part 3)

The Spring 2023 economic forecasts published by the European Commission indicate that, despite a gradual improvement in the stability of the public finance sector, many Central European countries will continue to experience budget deficits exceeding 3% of GDP. The largest budget deficits will be observed in Slovakia and Poland. Despite these challenges, both economies will...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 939
Bartosz Jóźwik - Baltic Team

Public Finance Sector Stability in Central European Countries (Part 2)

In 2022, among eleven Central European countries, five of them had budget deficits that exceeded the agreed limit of 3% of GDP. According to the latest data from Eurostat, the highest budget deficits, and consequently, the greatest challenges for the stability of the public finance sector, were recorded in Hungary and Romania. Hungary, thanks to its expansive fiscal policy,...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 916
Bartosz Jóźwik - Baltic Team

Public Finance Sector Stability in Central European Countries (Part 1)

During deep recessions such as those triggered recently by the COVID-19 pandemic and the war between Russia and Ukraine, ensuring stability in the public finance sector is not an easy task. In EU countries, this stability is associated with maintaining budget deficits and public debt below the levels required by the Maastricht criteria. In 2022, many Central European countries...

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Baltic Team

Komentarze IEŚ 753
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Kazakhstan: questionable source of crude oil supply for Central European refineries

The entry into force on December 5, 2022 of European Union sanctions against Russia, which prevent the import of crude oil from that country by sea, has forced refiners in Europe, including those in Central Europe, to seek alternative grades, including from Kazakhstan. On one hand refineries in Germany are counting on crude oil supplies from that country, but the direction of...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 565
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Without consensus: Central European countries move towards oil and gas embargo of Russia

Central European countries have different approaches to the possibility of introducing sanctions against Russia, among them suspending the import of crude oil and natural gas. While all states condemned Russia’s armed aggression against Ukraine and supported economic and political sanctions, there is no full agreement on sanctions relating to energy. This type of approach is due...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 390
Marlena Gołębiowska - Baltic Team

The New European Bauhaus: the challenges of Central Europe in terms of energy-efficient construction

The path to the ambitious European Union goal of climate neutrality leads largely through energy-efficient construction. Its creation is to be fostered by the New European Bauhaus – an initiative aimed at bringing together the knowledge and experience of representatives of various fields in order to redirect construction to low-carbon tracks. The countries of Central Europe face...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 345
Marlena Gołębiowska - Baltic Team

When food is scarce – Poverty in Central Europe

The picture of Central European poverty is clearly differentiated. In the Czech Republic, the rate of people at risk of poverty or social exclusion is the lowest in the entire European Union, while in Bulgaria – the highest. In total, 22 million citizens of the “new” EU countries were affected by this problem before the COVID-19 pandemic. The forecasts indicate...

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