Autor: Michał Paszkowski

Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

IEŚ Commentaries 475
and - Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

Slovakia resists construction of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline

The Nord Stream 2 (NS2) gas pipeline that is being built by the Russian company OAO Gazprom will have a significant impact on Slovakia‘s energy security. The country, like Ukraine, is concerned about limiting its role as a transit country, as well as Russia’s use of its monopoly position in Central Europe. Nevertheless, this is not a topic often raised in political debate....

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 467
- Baltic Team

The European Commission counters development of the oil shale sector in Estonia

For years, oil shale, with its similarity to coal, has played a key role in Estonia’s energy system. Currently, oil shale is burned for heat and power generation, or used (after processing) to produce liquid fuels (mainly marine fuel). To combat global climate change and environmental degradation processes, European Commission has prepared a new legislative package (Fit for 55),...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 458
- Baltic Team

Orlen Lietuva: new refinery installations crucial to improve efficiency

Mažeikiai refinery in Lithuania, owned by ORLEN Lietuva (a PKN ORLEN S.A. subsidiary), is the only plant of its kind operating in the Baltic States. Oil products are exported both to neighbouring countries and to international markets through oil terminals at the Baltic Sea. Due to the tough market conditions, logistical problems, and the Lithuanian climate policy, the plant...

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Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

IEŚ Commentaries 455
and - Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

Consistent increase in Hungary’s energy dependence on Russia

On September 27, 2021, Hungary signed a new natural gas supply contract with Russia, which would de-facto prevent the import of this commodity from any other location. The signing of the agreement is part of a consistent policy of the Viktor Orbán government, which is based on closer cooperation with Russia. The suggested alternatives (e.g., supplies from Azerbaijan) have so far...

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Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

IEŚ Commentaries 450
and - Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

Slovakia: price crisis and possible problems with access to natural gas

Currently, a significant challenge facing Slovakia is the rapidly growing prices of energy commodities, including natural gas. This problem affects not only large enterprises, but also individual clients. In addition to rising prices, the low level of filling of natural gas storage facilities is also worrying. Russia’s steps to reduce gas transport via Ukraine also directly...

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Baltic Team

Komentarze IEŚ 434
- Baltic Team

Winter is coming. Central European countries and their preparations for the increased natural gas demand

In Central European countries (as in other parts of the continent), the level of natural gas stored in underground gas storage (UGS) facilities before the coming autumn-winter period is low. This situation is a consequence of the limited availability of this commodity. Market conditions are not very favourable, and if such a situation continues in coming months, problems with the...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 342
- Baltic Team

Oil companies in trouble: the condition of refineries in Central European countries

The refining industry, like many other sectors of the economy, is in an extremely difficult situation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The introduced restrictions (e.g. closed land, sea, and air borders) resulted in a decrease in the demand for all types of fuels. There are over a dozen refineries in Central Europe which had to reduce cut runs. The persistently low refinery margins...

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Eastern Europe Team

IEŚ Commentaries 277
- Eastern Europe Team

Belarus and Ukraine: a new market for crude oil from the US?

In 2020, both Belarus and Ukraine purchased US crude oil, albeit for different reasons. The scale of import is small, but the market and international conditions could change it. In particular, if Belarus decides to create a more diversified structure of imports, it could count on the US (export of a similar crude oil grade). Unfortunately, the current political situation is not...

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