Autor: Michał Paszkowski

Balkan Team, Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 642
- Balkan Team, Baltic Team

EU sanctions against Russia and potential problems with Serbia crude oil supplies

The sixth package of sanctions against Russia introduced by the European Union in connection with the attack on Ukraine will have consequences for Serbian Pančevo refinery, owned by Russian companies. Deliveries to the plant are taking place via the Adria pipeline and the Omišalj oil terminal in Croatia, and the new sanctions prevent the unloading of Russian crude oil in EU...

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Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

IEŚ Commentaries 613
| Łukasz Lewkowicz - Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

Slovakia: the game about crude oil supplies from Russia

In Slovakia, a debate has been going on for a long time about the possible imposition on crude oil supply embargo from Russia by the European Union countries. The Slovak government hopes to obtain an appropriate derogation period from these provisions. Technological and infrastructural reasons are indicated as the problem. The project of introducing a special tax on crude oil...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 587
- Baltic Team

The Baltic States: stop Russian natural gas imports

Despite their natural gas supplies dependence, the Baltic states decided to suspend their imports from Russia. Such a decision is connected with the necessity to look for alternative supply sources and to fully use the existing infrastructure, which will also be expanded. Regional cooperation, including with Poland, will be key for Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Due to Russia’s...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 565
- Baltic Team

Without consensus: Central European countries move towards oil and gas embargo of Russia

Central European countries have different approaches to the possibility of introducing sanctions against Russia, among them suspending the import of crude oil and natural gas. While all states condemned Russia’s armed aggression against Ukraine and supported economic and political sanctions, there is no full agreement on sanctions relating to energy. This type of approach is due...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 467
- Baltic Team

The European Commission counters development of the oil shale sector in Estonia

For years, oil shale, with its similarity to coal, has played a key role in Estonia’s energy system. Currently, oil shale is burned for heat and power generation, or used (after processing) to produce liquid fuels (mainly marine fuel). To combat global climate change and environmental degradation processes, European Commission has prepared a new legislative package (Fit for 55),...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 458
- Baltic Team

Orlen Lietuva: new refinery installations crucial to improve efficiency

Mažeikiai refinery in Lithuania, owned by ORLEN Lietuva (a PKN ORLEN S.A. subsidiary), is the only plant of its kind operating in the Baltic States. Oil products are exported both to neighbouring countries and to international markets through oil terminals at the Baltic Sea. Due to the tough market conditions, logistical problems, and the Lithuanian climate policy, the plant...

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Baltic Team

Komentarze IEŚ 434
- Baltic Team

Winter is coming. Central European countries and their preparations for the increased natural gas demand

In Central European countries (as in other parts of the continent), the level of natural gas stored in underground gas storage (UGS) facilities before the coming autumn-winter period is low. This situation is a consequence of the limited availability of this commodity. Market conditions are not very favourable, and if such a situation continues in coming months, problems with the...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 342
- Baltic Team

Oil companies in trouble: the condition of refineries in Central European countries

The refining industry, like many other sectors of the economy, is in an extremely difficult situation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The introduced restrictions (e.g. closed land, sea, and air borders) resulted in a decrease in the demand for all types of fuels. There are over a dozen refineries in Central Europe which had to reduce cut runs. The persistently low refinery margins...

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Eastern Team

IEŚ Commentaries 277
- Eastern Team

Belarus and Ukraine: a new market for crude oil from the US?

In 2020, both Belarus and Ukraine purchased US crude oil, albeit for different reasons. The scale of import is small, but the market and international conditions could change it. In particular, if Belarus decides to create a more diversified structure of imports, it could count on the US (export of a similar crude oil grade). Unfortunately, the current political situation is not...

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