IES Commentaries

Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1093

Shelters in Lithuania. Catching up

Over the last two years, due to the ongoing Russian-Ukrainian war, Lithuania has amended the law on crisis management and civil protection. A review of existing collective protection facilities was carried out and activities to create new shelters were intensified. The current infrastructure, adapted to provide temporary protection for the population in times of emergency or war,...

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Eastern Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1084
Jakub Olchowski - Eastern Team

The case of Valerii Zaluzhnyi – a symptom of growing political tensions in Ukraine

The dismissal from the post of commander-in-chief of General Valerii Zaluzhnyi, very popular in Ukrainian society and the armed forces, caused a great stir, which was then intensified by the information that he was appointed ambassador to Great Britain. In Ukraine, it is widely believed that Zaluzhnyi’s dismissal was the result of concerns of President Volodymyr Zelenskyy and...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1079
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Lukoil plans to sell its refinery in Bulgaria

For years, companies from the Russian Federation have been acquiring attractive energy assets around the world, including in Central European countries. The introduction of EU sanctions following Russia’s full-scale aggression against Ukraine has restricted the operations of some of these companies. This is the situation with the Burgas refinery in Bulgaria, owned by the...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1076
Marlena Gołębiowska - Baltic Team

Proposals for new fiscal rules in the EU: the perspective of Central European countries

The reform of public finance architecture in the European Union focuses on solutions that, on the one hand, will allow member states to ensure long-term financial stability, but on the other hand, will not stifle economic growth and the planned reforms and investments in strategic areas. Of particular importance from the point of view of Central European countries is the proposal...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1074

Security as a priority in Polish-Lithuanian relations

Poland and Lithuania have significantly strengthened their political relations recently, as numerous official visits at the highest level have reflected. Lithuania was visited by the Foreign Minister of Poland, Radosław Sikorski, then President Andrzej Duda, Speaker of the Sejm Szymon Hołownia, and Prime Minister Donald Tusk. Representatives of both countries have confirmed...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1071
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Natural gas demand decline in the Baltic countries in 2023

The Baltic countries have recorded another consecutive year of declining natural gas demand in 2023. Initially, such a situation was related to the COVID-19 pandemic and high commodity prices on exchanges in Europe (the result of price manipulation by Russia in 2021 and then the Russian-Ukrainian war in 2022). It is now expected that the projected economic growth in 2024 and the...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1055
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Crude oil terminals in Central European countries in the era of the shift away from Russian commodities

There are six crude oil terminals in the Central European countries of the European Union, supplying a total of sixteen refineries, several of which are located outside the EU. Due to the ongoing Russian-Ukrainian war, these terminals have been unloading tankers from countries that have not previously supplied crude oil to these refineries, or if they have, sporadically, in 2023....

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Eastern Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1047
Piotr Oleksy - Eastern Team

Moldova is on the road to the EU. What about Transnistria?

Transnistria will pose a significant challenge in the process of the Republic of Moldova’s accession to the European Union. Until now, the issue has been relegated to the background. There have also been numerous suggestions that Moldova could join the EU without the separatist republic. In reality, however, these propositions should be regarded as part of a political game over...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1035
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

LNG terminals in Central Europe: importance and operation

There are several LNG regasification terminals in Central European countries, aimed at securing natural gas supplies from various directions. In the context of the outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian war, the importance of these terminals has definitely increased. At present, they are a key tool in efforts to diversify the sources and directions of natural gas supplies, especially...

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Visegrad Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1034
Jakub Bornio - Visegrad Team

Airspace violations in Central and Eastern European countries in the context of the war in Ukraine

Due to the outbreak of a full-scale conflict between Russia and Ukraine, there have been several incidents involving air and missile threats, as well as air defence systems in the airspace of Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC). Certainly, some of these incidents have been intentional provocations by Russia against NATO, Ukraine or Moldova, aimed at pursuing a specific...

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