Keyword: security

Baltic Team

Komentarze IEŚ 753
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Kazakhstan: questionable source of crude oil supply for Central European refineries

The entry into force on December 5, 2022 of European Union sanctions against Russia, which prevent the import of crude oil from that country by sea, has forced refiners in Europe, including those in Central Europe, to seek alternative grades, including from Kazakhstan. On one hand refineries in Germany are counting on crude oil supplies from that country, but the direction of...

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Eastern Team

IEŚ Commentaries 700
Jakub Olchowski - Eastern Team

Credibility of international organizations in the face of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine (part 1)

Russia’s aggression against Ukraine has contributed not only to the accelerated erosion of the international order but also to a decline in trust in international organizations. The limited effectiveness of key inter-state organizations, the controversial activities of some important non-governmental organizations, and Russia’s consistent disregard for international...

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Balkan Team, Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 642
Michał Paszkowski - Balkan Team, Baltic Team

EU sanctions against Russia and potential problems with Serbia crude oil supplies

The sixth package of sanctions against Russia introduced by the European Union in connection with the attack on Ukraine will have consequences for Serbian Pančevo refinery, owned by Russian companies. Deliveries to the plant are taking place via the Adria pipeline and the Omišalj oil terminal in Croatia, and the new sanctions prevent the unloading of Russian crude oil in EU...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 587
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

The Baltic States: stop Russian natural gas imports

Despite their natural gas supplies dependence, the Baltic states decided to suspend their imports from Russia. Such a decision is connected with the necessity to look for alternative supply sources and to fully use the existing infrastructure, which will also be expanded. Regional cooperation, including with Poland, will be key for Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Due to Russia’s...

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Eastern Team

IEŚ Commentaries 548
Jakub Bornio - Eastern Team

Russian invasion triggers changes in the security architecture in Central and Eastern Europe

The structure of the security system in Central and Eastern Europe might have been revolutionized as both state and non-state actors performed decisive actions in reaction to the Russian reinitiated attack on Ukraine. Germany announced an extreme reshape of its Ostpolitik, but the true nature and durability of such a shift remain unknown. The EU is still a “military midget,”...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 531

Baltic States’ solidarity with Ukraine

In recent weeks, and particularly after Russia's attack on Ukraine, issues concerning security in the region have become a priority in the public debate over the Baltic States. In response to the Russian aggression, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia expressed solidarity and readiness to help Ukraine and made an attempt to strengthen their own security. The Baltic States may also be...

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Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

IEŚ Commentaries 475
Łukasz Lewkowicz - Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

Slovakia resists construction of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline

The Nord Stream 2 (NS2) gas pipeline that is being built by the Russian company OAO Gazprom will have a significant impact on Slovakia‘s energy security. The country, like Ukraine, is concerned about limiting its role as a transit country, as well as Russia’s use of its monopoly position in Central Europe. Nevertheless, this is not a topic often raised in political debate....

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 467
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

The European Commission counters development of the oil shale sector in Estonia

For years, oil shale, with its similarity to coal, has played a key role in Estonia’s energy system. Currently, oil shale is burned for heat and power generation, or used (after processing) to produce liquid fuels (mainly marine fuel). To combat global climate change and environmental degradation processes, European Commission has prepared a new legislative package (Fit for 55),...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 458
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Orlen Lietuva: new refinery installations crucial to improve efficiency

Mažeikiai refinery in Lithuania, owned by ORLEN Lietuva (a PKN ORLEN S.A. subsidiary), is the only plant of its kind operating in the Baltic States. Oil products are exported both to neighbouring countries and to international markets through oil terminals at the Baltic Sea. Due to the tough market conditions, logistical problems, and the Lithuanian climate policy, the plant...

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Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

IEŚ Commentaries 455
Dominik Héjj - Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

Consistent increase in Hungary’s energy dependence on Russia

On September 27, 2021, Hungary signed a new natural gas supply contract with Russia, which would de-facto prevent the import of this commodity from any other location. The signing of the agreement is part of a consistent policy of the Viktor Orbán government, which is based on closer cooperation with Russia. The suggested alternatives (e.g., supplies from Azerbaijan) have so far...

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