Polish-American cooperation to support Ukraine after Russian aggression in 2022

Współpraca polsko-amerykańska na rzecz wsparcia Ukrainy po rosyjskiej agresji w 2022 roku

ORCID: Łukasz Jureńczyk: 0000-0003-1149-925X

Afiliacja: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland

ORCID: Łukasz Jureńczyk: 0000-0003-1149-925X

Pages: 139-154

Edition: Lublin 2023

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2023.1.9

Citation method: Ł. Jureńczyk, Polish-American cooperation to support Ukraine after Russian aggression in 2022, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 21 (2023), z. 1, s. 139-154, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2023.1.9

Abstract: The article analyses and evaluates Polish-American cooperation in support of Ukraine after Russia’s full-scale aggression in 2022. It answers the question regarding the importance of Polish-American cooperation in supporting the Ukrainian state and society. It assumes that Polish-American cooperation plays a key role in the areas of military and non-military assistance for Ukraine and Ukrainians. Both countries are among the main donors of military equipment to Ukraine, which is delivered via the territory of Poland. In addition, they put great pressure on European countries to increase military support to Ukraine. Polish-American cooperation in non-military areas is also of great importance. Poland’s aid for Ukrainian refugees is crucial, and the US is involved in its delivery and financing. The US, in turn, is of paramount importance in imposing sanctions on Russia to force it to stop its aggression and in providing economic assistance to Ukraine. Poland participates in the sanctions system and strives to make them as severe as possible. Another area of Polish-American cooperation is LNG trade, which allows Poland, and potentially also other CEE countries, including Ukraine, to secure natural gas supplies after abandoning imports from Russia. During the research, interviews with American scientists and experts were conducted, and the method of analysing the content of text sources was used.

Bibliography:

  1. Atwood K., Hansler J., Austin says the US wants to see Russia’s military capabilities weakened, CNN, 25 April 2022, https://edition.cnn.com/2022/04/25/politics/blinken-austin-kyiv-ukraine-zelensky-meeting/index.html.
  2. Baszczak Ł. et al., Pomoc polskiego społeczeństwa dla uchodźców z Ukrainy, Warsaw 2022.
  3. Biddle S., Interview given to the author, New York, 5 May 2022.
  4. Big-Alabo T., MacAlex-Achinulo E.C., Russia-Ukraine crisis and regional security, “International Journal of Political Science” 2022, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 21-35.
  5. Brown D., Horton J., Ahmedzade T., Ukraine weapons: What tanks and other equipment are the world giving?, BBC, 17 January 2023, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-62002218.
  6. Bryjka F., The importance of western arms supplies for Ukraine, “PISM Spotlight” 2022, vol. 34, pp. 1-2.
  7. Choonara J., The devastation of Ukraine: NATO, Russia and imperialism, “International Socialism” 2022, vol. 2, no. 174, pp. 3-30.
  8. Doyle M., Interview given to the author, New York, 27 April 2022.
  9. Geletukha G. et al., Analysis of actions for Ukraine to replace Russian natural gas, “Ecological Engineering & Environmental Technology” 2022, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1-9.
  10. George J., Interview given to the author, New York, 23 May 2022.
  11. Goldgeier J., Interview given to the author, Washington DC, 16 May 2022.
  12. Haesebrouck T., Taghon S., Van Coppenolle H., The war in Ukraine, Ghent 2022.
  13. Hooker Jr R.D., Ukraine can win, “Atlantic Council”, 20 July 2022, https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/ukrainealert/ukraine-can-win/.
  14. Joint Declaration between the United States Department of Energy and the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Poland concerning Enhanced Cooperation on Energy Security, PL, 8 November 2018, https://www.gov.pl/web/aktywa-panstwowe/wzmocnienie-polsko-amerykanskiej-wspolpracy-w-zakresie-bezpieczenstwa-energetycznego.
  15. Mackinnon A., Detsch J., Ukraine wants NATO Jets. Biden says not yet, “Foreign Policy”, 9 March 2022, https://foreignpolicy.com/2022/03/09/ukraine-nato-jets-russia-biden/.
  16. Morgan K., Interview given to the author, Washington DC, 5 May 2022.
  17. NATO, Bucharest Summit Declaration Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Bucharest on 3 April 2008, 3 April 2008, https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_8443.htm.
  18. NATO, Warsaw Summit Communiqué. Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Warsaw 8-9 July 2016, 9 July 2016, https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_133169.htm.
  19. Pifer S., Interview given to the author, Washington DC, 29 April 2022.
  20. Prezydent RP, Message from the President of the Republic of Poland, 24 February 2022, https://www.president.pl/news/message-from-the-president-of-the-republic-of-poland,49387.
  21. Prezydent RP, Strategia Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, Warsaw 2020, https://www.prezydent.pl/aktualnosci/wydarzenia/nowa-strategia-bezpieczenstwa-narodowego-rp-,1752.
  22. Rudy M., Ambasador USA o relacjach amerykańsko-polskich: to wyjątkowy i szczególny czas, PAP, 5 June 2022, https://www.pap.pl/aktualnosci/news%2C1233782%2Cambasador-usa-o-relacjach-amerykansko-polskich-wyjatkowy-i-szczegolny-czas.
  23. Ryan M., Timsit A., S. wants Russian military ‘weakened’ from Ukraine invasion, Austin says, “The Washington Post”, 25 April 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2022/04/25/russia-weakened-lloyd-austin-ukraine-visit/.
  24. Schmitt B., European Energy Security Post-Russia, CEPA, 7 June 2022, https://cepa.org/european-energy-security-post-russia/.
  25. Szopa M., Polish weapons defending Ukraine, 24, 24 May 2022, https://defence24.com/industry/polish-weapons-defending-ukraine-analysis.
  26. The White House, FACT SHEET: The Biden Administration Announces New Humanitarian, Development, and Democracy Assistance to Ukraine and the Surrounding Region, 24 March 2022, https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2022/03/24/fact-sheet-the-biden-administration-announces-new-humanitarian-development-and-democracy-assistance-to-ukraine-and-the-surrounding-region/.
  27. The White House, National Security Strategy, October 2022, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/Biden-Harris-Administrations-National-Security-Strategy-10.2022.pdf.
  28. The White House, Remarks by President Biden on Russia’s unprovoked and unjustified attack on Ukraine, 24 February 2022, https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/speeches-remarks/2022/02/24/remarks-by-president-biden-on-russias-unprovoked-and-unjustified-attack-on-ukraine/.
  29. Trusewicz I., Nowe sankcje UE wobec Rosji. Polska i Litwa chcą więcej, “Rzeczpospolita”, 17 January 2023, https://www.rp.pl/gospodarka/art37795751-nowe-sankcje-ue-wobec-rosji-polska-i-litwa-chca-wiecej.
  30. UNHCR, Ukraine refugee situation, 17 January 2023, https://data.unhcr.org/en/situations/ukraine#_ga=2.29159420.1164648425.1654871881-2130049685.1651174834.
  31. USAID, USAID announces additional $125 million in urgent energy support for Ukraine, 18 January 2023, https://www.usaid.gov/news-information/press-releases/jan-18-2023-usaid-announces-additional-125-million-urgent-energy-support-ukraine.
  32. S. Department of Defense, Statement by Pentagon Press Secretary John F. Kirby on Security Assistance to Ukraine, 8 March 2022, https://www.defense.gov/News/Releases/Release/Article/2960180/statement-by-pentagon-press-secretary-john-f-kirby-on-security-assistance-to-uk/.
  33. S. Department of State, U.S. security cooperation with Poland, 31 October 2022, https://www.state.gov/u-s-security-cooperation-with-poland/.
  34. S. Department of State, U.S. security cooperation with Ukraine, 18 January 2023, https://www.state.gov/u-s-security-cooperation-with-ukraine/.
  35. Wolchik S.L., Interview given to the author, Washington DC, 18 May 2022.
  36. Yaffa J., Inside the U.S. effort to arm Ukraine, “The New Yorker”, 17 October 2022, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2022/10/24/inside-the-us-effort-to-arm-ukraine.