Keyword: Energy

Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1055
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Crude oil terminals in Central European countries in the era of the shift away from Russian commodities

There are six crude oil terminals in the Central European countries of the European Union, supplying a total of sixteen refineries, several of which are located outside the EU. Due to the ongoing Russian-Ukrainian war, these terminals have been unloading tankers from countries that have not previously supplied crude oil to these refineries, or if they have, sporadically, in 2023....

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1035
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

LNG terminals in Central Europe: importance and operation

There are several LNG regasification terminals in Central European countries, aimed at securing natural gas supplies from various directions. In the context of the outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian war, the importance of these terminals has definitely increased. At present, they are a key tool in efforts to diversify the sources and directions of natural gas supplies, especially...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 1027
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Natural gas and crude oil markets in Central European countries in 2023

Central European countries in 2023 were taking active steps to strengthen energy security, which was a difficult process. A key strategic objective was to reduce dependence on hydrocarbons supplies from the Russian Federation by initiating new investments and continuing those already underway. Importantly, there are still countries on the continent that cooperate with Russia in...

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Balkan Team, Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 955
Spasimir Domaradzki | Michał Paszkowski - Balkan Team, Baltic Team

Bulgaria: technical government settlements on natural gas deal

In Bulgaria, the new government of Prime Minister Nikolai Denkov has ordered an investigation into the 2023 Bulgarian-Turkish agreement, which provides access for Bulgargaz to LNG terminals in Turkey and the Turkish transmission network. According to the government’s position, the agreement between Bulgargaz and BOTAŞ, which was concluded for a period of 13 years, is...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 915
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Serbia activates natural gas supply efforts

Serbia has, for years, been dependent on natural gas supplies from the Russian Federation, and the resulting political influence has had consequences for its energy policy and the presence of Russian capital in key energy companies. In recent months, however, there has been a noticeable modification of the Belgrade government’s position on the importance of Russia in ensuring...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 879
Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Sweden’s electricity sector challenges

For years, Sweden’s low electricity prices have been a direct consequence of the operation of the country’s nuclear and hydroelectric power plants. A stable level of energy demand has made Sweden an energy exporter, but the situation may change over the next several years. Such a situation will require appropriate investment measures. Over the years, negative public attitudes...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 808

Raport: IEŚ Commentaries 808 (56/2023)

Michał Paszkowski - Baltic Team

Bulgaria considers returning to construction of Burgas-Alexandroupoli pipeline

Bulgaria is considering a return to the construction of the Burgas-Alexandroupoli pipeline, which would allow greater diversification of crude oil supplies to the Burgas refinery. The project was initiated as early as 1993, at which time it was intended to increase exports of Russian crude oil to international markets. The ongoing Russian-Ukrainian war and sanctions imposed on the...

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Balkan Team, Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

IEŚ Commentaries 807
Jan Muś | Michał Paszkowski | Dominik Héjj - Balkan Team, Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

Serbia-Hungary pipeline: a new chapter in energy cooperation

Serbia has been taking active steps for several months to diversify the sources and directions of crude oil supplies to the country’s only operating refinery in Panchevo. Due to sanctions imposed on Russia, the plant is currently unable to import crude oil from that country. However, the government in Belgrade is in favor of building a pipeline linking Serbia and...

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Baltic Team

IEŚ Commentaries 616
Damian Szacawa - Baltic Team

A decisive year for regional cooperation within the Council of the Baltic Sea States

Ministers of foreign affairs and other high-level representatives of the members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) met on May 25, 2022, in Kristiansand, Norway, for the first CBSS Ministerial Session in nine years. A summary of Norway’s Presidency (July 2021-June 2022) and an assessment of the impact that Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is having on the Baltic...

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Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

IEŚ Commentaries 475
Łukasz Lewkowicz - Baltic Team, Visegrad Team

Slovakia resists construction of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline

The Nord Stream 2 (NS2) gas pipeline that is being built by the Russian company OAO Gazprom will have a significant impact on Slovakia‘s energy security. The country, like Ukraine, is concerned about limiting its role as a transit country, as well as Russia’s use of its monopoly position in Central Europe. Nevertheless, this is not a topic often raised in political debate....

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