Facing new challenges: the security and resilience of East-Central European states in the 21st century

Issue editor: Marta Drabczuk and Tomasz Stępniewski

ISSN: 1732-1395

e-ISSN: 2719-2911

Number of pages: 228

Publisher: Instytut Europy Środkowej

Edition: Lublin 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2022.1

Articles

Article

The mechanisms of the Russian Federation’s domination in the regional and global security environment

Views count: 622
Celem badań, którego rezultaty przedstawiono w niniejszym artykule, było wyjaśnienie mechanizmów prowadzących do osiągania przez Federację Rosyjskiej dominacji w środowisku bezpieczeństwa regionalnego i globalnego. Do rozwiązywania problemów badawczych zastosowano podejście systemowe oraz metody: analizę i krytykę literatury, obserwację nieuczestniczącą i wywiad nieskategoryzowany. W procesie badawczym ustalono, że dominacja Federacji Rosyjskiej na arenie międzynarodowej opiera się na sile. Kluczowym czynnikiem umożliwiającym jej osiąganie jest przewaga ilościowo-jakościowa sił zbrojnych, wyrażająca się współczynnikami korelacji siły, prognozowaniem strategicznym i przewidywaniem operacyjnym, a także stosowaniem nowoczesnych form i metod użycia sił zbrojnych. Występujące dysproporcje międzynarodowe Federacja Rosyjska równoważy stosowaniem adaptacyjnej strategii, szantażem eskalacji konfliktu przy użyciu broni nuklearnej, nowoczesnymi i zaawansowanymi technologicznie zdolnościami operacyjnymi oraz ofensywnymi działaniami asymetrycznymi.
M. Banasik, The mechanisms of the Russian Federation's domination in the regional and global security environment, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 20(2022), z. 1, s. 7-23, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2022.1.1.

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Fedyk N., Russian “New Generation” Warfare: Theory, Practice, and Lessons for U.S. Strategists, Small War Journals, 5 April 2017, https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/russian-%E2%80%9Cnew-generation%E2%80%9D-warfare-theory-practice-and-lessons-for-us-strategists-0.

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Article

Strategic autonomy of the European Union in the politics of France before and after Russian aggression in Ukraine

Views count: 658
The aim of the article is to present the proposal by France as the initiator of the development of the strategic autonomy of the European Union and the politics of France before and after Russian aggression in Ukraine. The idea of the European Union’s involvement in the defence sphere has been with us for years; however, the concept of strategic autonomy is differently understood in the Member States of the European Union. For this reason, the following research questions were formulated: How is the strategic autonomy of the European Union understood in the politics of France? What is the position of France in reference to developing a “Europe of defence” for the European Union’s security and defence policy? How does Russia’s aggression in Ukraine affect the development of the European Union’s strategic autonomy in France’s policy? How does Russia’s aggression in Ukraine affect France’s position on the spread of the EU’s strategic autonomy? It would seem that the outbreak of the war in Ukraine constitutes an existential test for strategic autonomy.
K.J. Helnarska, Strategic autonomy of the European Union in the politics of France before and after Russian aggression in Ukraine, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 20(2022), z. 1, s. 25-34, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2022.1.2.

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Article

The rise of a new transnational political nation: the Belarusian diaspora and its leaders after the 2020 protests

Views count: 659
When an authoritarian country lacks opportunities for free political activity, the diaspora and its leaders often take on the role of the democratic opposition against the authoritarian government and act as a political force for democratization. Although political activity abroad is very challenging and limited per se, the example of the Belarusian diaspora and its leaders demonstrates that they can play the role of an internationally recognized political entity. The pro-democratic activity of the Belarusian diaspora focuses on three main areas: the continuation of resistance against the authoritarian regime, the advancement of political representation, and the development of a credible democratic alternative including a political program for a future democratic Belarus. Yet the Russian aggression against Ukraine has put Belarusian opposition abroad at the front of a dilemma as to whether they should also take on a clear nation-building in the new geopolitical context.
M. Jaroszewicz, M. Lesińska, K. Homel, The rise of a new transnational political nation: the Belarusian diaspora and its leaders after the 2020 protests, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 20(2022), z. 1, s. 35-56, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2022.1.3.

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Article

New challenges of international energy security: between continuation and change. Implications of the COVID-19 pandemic

Views count: 657
The main research objective of the presented study is to analyse, in accordance with selected theoretical and methodological assumptions, the main challenges of international energy security. This will be possible thanks to a comprehensive analysis in the explanatory and predictive dimension. Analyses of energy security issues take into account long-term development trends as well as unpredictable events related to the functioning of infrastructure and energy technology. Thus, unexpected, sudden phenomena resulting from the dynamics of the international environment gain in importance. The energy security policy has been narrowly defined so far, and thus the issue of thinking in terms of various development opportunities in the raw materials industry is often overlooked. The dilemma related to “non-linear” thinking often ignores a variety of solutions that, taken together, can cause a radical turn in the energy market and its evolution. The methodological framework of the conducted research included research methods appropriate to the science of international relations. The factor method was useful in identifying the determinants of energy security redefinition in the contemporary world. The prognostic analysis turned out to be helpful in the part of the thesis on the prospects for the development of energy security.
J. Misiągiewicz, New challenges of international energy security: between continuation and change. Implications of the COVID-19 pandemic, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 20(2022), z. 1, s. 57-77, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2022.1.4.

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Article

Poland’s energy transformation in the context of the challenges of the European green deal

Views count: 676
One of the most important socio-economic challenges is the skilful transformation of the economy towards low and zero-emission energy sources. This transformation is ongoing, and Poland, due to its high dependence on coal and high emissions has a challenging task to perform. Hence, the article aims to indicate the activities undertaken by Poland as part of the energy transformation related to the European Green Deal and the impact of energy transformation on the Polish economy. Therefore, the issues discussed include: explaining the principles characterizing the European Green Deal programme, describing the current state of the Polish energy sector, indicating activities that will make Poland a zero-emissions nation, and highlighting the economic implications of this energy transformation at the national level. The analysis shows that the transformation of the domestic energy sector is a long-term, ongoing process. The share of green energy in the national mix is systematically, albeit slowly, growing, and energy sector emissions show a downward trend, although in the current difficult energy situation in Europe, this trend may slow down. Moreover, for systemic and financial reasons it is not possible to quickly replace energy production from coal with other low or zero-emission energy carriers. The study used a critical analysis of the literature and strategic documents on the energy sector, the institutional and legal method, the prognostic method, and inductive inference.
E. Kochanek, Poland's energy transformation in the context of the challenges of the European green deal, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 20(2022), z. 1, s. 79-101,
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2022.1.5.

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Article

Social perception of 5G technology

Views count: 660
Celem artykułu jest szersze spojrzenie na obecną sytuację związaną z wdrażaniem technologii 5G w Polsce z perspektywy społecznej. Analiza została przeprowadzona w kontekście postaw Polaków wobec nauki i techniki oraz wiedzy o nowoczesnych technologiach. Oprócz analizy literatury przedmiotu w artykule zostaną przedstawione wyniki dwóch równoległych badań z wykorzystaniem trzech metod badawczych: fokusowych, pogłębionych wywiadów eksperckich oraz ankiety przeprowadzonej metodą wywiadów bezpośrednich w domach respondentów. W artykule refleksji zostały poddane m.in. pytania o to, jaki jest stosunek Polaków do rozwoju nauki i techniki, w szczególności do technologii 5G oraz czy rozwój nowoczesnych technologii jest przyczyną społecznego niepokoju Polaków. Z badań nad odbiorem społecznym sieci 5G w Polsce wynika, że Polacy nie znają technologii 5G. Ich niewiedza wynika ze źle prowadzonej edukacji technologicznej, niedostatecznego informowania społeczeństwa przez władze państwowe, braku zaufania społeczeństwa do władz jako niewiarygodnego źródła informacji oraz ze względu na hermetyczny język, którym posługują się specjaliści z telekomunikacji. Duży wpływ ma także dezinformacja mająca na celu opóźnienie wdrożenia tej technologii w Europie, również związana z wojną o 5G między Stanami Zjednoczonymi a Chinami, dodatkowo wpływa na wyjątkowo negatywne postrzeganie technologii 5G w polskim społeczeństwie.
U. Soler, Social perception of 5G technology, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 20(2022), z. 1, s. 103-120, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2022.1.6.

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Article

Combating cyber threats as an element of the Visegrad Group’s cybersecurity policy

Views count: 682

The Visegrad Group countries are taking actions that confirm their ambitions in the framework of cyber security policy. The tasks formulated both in strategic documents and in international forums are evidence of the active role of Central European governments in the area of cyber security. Many countries are facing a rising tide of cyberattacks, which are likely to intensify over time. Any such incident has the potential to inflict significant damage, undermining trust in government and causing unpredictable political consequences. For this reason, there is an apparent desire on the part of the V4 countries to build common cyber resilience based on close cooperation with the EU and NATO. Another way of describing the actions taken in the article is budget spending on cyber security, which is an important measure for assessing the development of the cyber capabilities of individual countries. The article is an attempt to summarize the actions taken by the V4 countries in the period 2013-2021 within the framework of cyber security policy, which for the most part remains in the sphere of mere political declarations. The research analysis undertaken can serve as a starting point for further consideration of V4 cooperation especially in the context of the military aggression of the Russian Federation after 24 February 2022. This event mandates consideration of the future of cooperation between Central European countries – in the broadest sense – on security policy.
M. Górka, Combating cyber threats as an element of the Visegrad Group's cybersecurity policy, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 20(2022), z. 1, s. 121-142, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2022.1.7.

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Article

Cross-border cooperation in selected Carpathian countries

Views count: 672
Cross-border cooperation helps to mitigate the negative effects of the border and overcome the consequences of the location of border areas. The article aims to identify the ways of using the cultural and natural potential in EU Cross-border Cooperation Programmes implemented in the Polish, Slovak, and Ukrainian areas of the Carpathians. The analysis covers the existing data using the method of examining strategic documents of the Programmes: Poland-Slovakia, Poland-Belarus-Ukraine, Hungary-Slovakia-Ukraine, and Hungary- Slovakia-Romania-Ukraine, implemented in three programming periods (2004-2020). A quantitative analysis of the projects concerning the use of cultural and natural heritage, which was implemented under the presented Programmes, was also carried out. The research was used to answer the following questions: (1) what kinds of projects with the use of cultural and natural heritage are carried out, (2) are there differences in the ways of using cultural and natural heritage, (3) are there differences between the Programmes implemented in internal and external border regions of the EU. The study made it possible to establish that in the case of all the Programmes, cultural and natural values are considered a strength of the regions and are associated with significant expectations in terms of their use in the development of these areas. At the same time, it is noticed that they are used insufficiently. Activities related to the use of cultural and natural heritage were supported in all the Programmes; however, it was the method of financing that largely determined the taking of action. Traditional (typical) ways of using natural and cultural resources are still dominant.
A. Pieniążek, Cross-border cooperation in selected Carpathian countries, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 20(2022), z. 1, s. 143-159, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2022.1.8.

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Article

Conflict as a differentiating factor in the creation of social capital among youth in Serbia and Poland

Views count: 703
This paper analyses how conflict impacts social capital. The existing literature suggests that the social capital of a society which has experienced conflict or military operations will not be shaped in the same way as the social capital in an area where there were no such actions. Yet, there is disagreement on what the specific effects of a conflict are. This paper seeks to address this puzzle by comparing levels of social capital in Serbia and Poland. The research presented in this paper was conducted among two groups; the first, a group of respondents including young Serbs (18-24 years old) who, during the 1990s, survived hostilities on the territory of their country or grew up surrounded by people who were participating in military actions. The second group includes young Poles (aged 18-24), who as children, grew up in a society, which from 1995-2002 did not experience either conflict or military action. Significant research results include the following: in a society in which no conflict has occurred in the past, there is a higher level of social and political participation; the formation of bridging communities, trust in social actors from outside the immediate family, trust in institutions, and a greater sense of security in the neighbourhood.
Z. Sielska, J. Lončar, Conflict as a differentiating factor in the creation of social capital among youth in Serbia and Poland, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 20(2022), z. 1, s. 161-182, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2022.1.9.

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Article

Between socialist homeland and totalitarian dictatorship. The image of the post-World War II period in Ukrainian historical discourse

Views count: 684
This paper is devoted to the analysis of selected aspects how Ukrainian schools present the historical narrative that covers the post-World War II history of this country – particularly the period of late socialism. My goal was to establish how post-Maidan textbooks presented the times when Ukraine was part of the Soviet Union in its superpower phase. I was especially interested in the current assessment of such phenomena as: post-Stalinist modernization, the movements opposing communist ideology, and the late socialist concept of the Soviet people. The source material was five new textbooks for historical education at high-school level approved for use by the Ukrainian authorities in 2019. The basic research method was discourse analysis: the content of the textbooks were critically evaluated in light of the ongoing political and social situation. Among the theoretical assumptions that were applied in the paper was that the historical narrative has a key importance as a function of the nation-state and as such serves its interests. To conclude the analysis below, it should be emphasized that historical narrative of Ukrainian Schools presents the past of the country in the second half of the 20th century as a general process of gaining independence from the Soviet centre. In the context of Russia’s aggression against Ukraine, it should be assumed that the emancipatory nature of the interpretation of Ukraine’s national history is now irreversible.
M. Studenna-Skrukwa, Between socialist homeland and totalitarian dictatorship. The image of the post-World War II period in Ukrainian historical discourse, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 20(2022), z. 1, s. 183-201, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2022.1.10.

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