ORCID: Paulina Szeląg: 0000-0002-0662-4987
ORCID: Paulina Szeląg: 0000-0002-0662-4987
Wydanie: Lublin 2019
Sposób cytowania: P. Szeląg, The impact of the European Union visa liberalisation process on the reduction of organised crime and corruption in Kosovo, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 17 (2019), z. 4, s. 123-139, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2019.4.6.
Słowa kluczowe: korupcja, Kosowo, przestępczość zorganizowana, Unia Europejska
Keywords: corruption, Kosovo, organised crime, the European Union, visa-liberalisation process
On January 19, 2012, the European Commission (Commission) decided to launch a visa liberalisation dialogue with Kosovo, and on June 14, 2012, it handed over to Kosovo’s government a ‘Roadmap Towards a Visa-free Regime’. This document included 95 requirements that Kosovo had to fulfil. By 2016, the Commission had adopted four reports on progress made by Kosovo in the visa dialogue. In a report issued on May 4, 2016, the EC proposed to the Council of the EU (Council) and the European Parliament (EP) to lift visa requirements on the citizens of Kosovo. The Commission stressed that by the day of the adoption of the proposal by the EP and the Council, Kosovo must have ratified the border/boundary agreement with Montenegro and strengthened its track record in the fight against organised crime and corruption. On July 18, 2018, the Commission confirmed in a report on the progress made by Kosovo in the visa dialogue, that the country had fulfilled the last two requirements included in the roadmap. The aim of this article is to analyse the visa-liberalisation dialogue between the European Union (EU) and Kosovo and whether liberalisation through a visa-free regime with Kosovo had an influence on reducing organised crime and corruption in Kosovo. The article is based on an analysis of primary and secondary sources, as well as statistical data.
Begisholli B., Kosovo’s Anti-Corruption Efforts Inadequate, BIRN Report Says, Balkan Insight, 23.05.2019, https://balkaninsight.com/2019/05/23/ko- sovos-anti-corruption-efforts-inadequate-birn-report-says/ [16.07.2019].
Bytyci F., Kosovo and Montenegro Reach a Deal on 2015 Border Agreement, Reuters, 16.02.2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-kosovo-mon- tenegro-border/kosovo-and-montenegro-reach-deal-on-2015-border- -agreement-idUSKCN1G01HA [15.07.2019].
Council Joint Action on the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Ko- sovo, EULEX Kosovo, 2008, https://www.eumonitor.nl/9353000/1/ j9vvik7m1c3gyxp/vi7jgt7sfstm [04.07.2019].
Council of the European Union, Regional Report on the Western Balkans, Brussels, 09.11.2017.
Economides S., Ker-Lindsay J., Papadimitriou D., Kosovo: Four Futures, „Sur- vival” 2010, vol. 52, no. 5.
European Commission, Press Release Database, European Commission Pro- poses Visa-free Travel for the People of Kosovo, Brussels, 04.05.2016, http:// europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-1626_en.htm [15.07.2019].
European Commission, Press Release Database, First Commission Report on Progress by Kosovo Towards Visa Liberalisation, Brussels, 12.02.2013, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-108_en.htm [11.07.2019].
European Commission, Press Release Database, Visa Liberalisation: Commis- sion Confirms Kosovo Fulfils All Required Benchmarks, Brussels, 18.07.2018, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-4562_en.htm [15.07.2019].
European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations, Stabilisa- tion and Association Agreement, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood- -enlargement/policy/glossary/terms/saa_en [04.07.2019].
European Stability Initiative, https://www.esiweb.org/index.php?lang= en&id=350 [08.07.2019].
European Union External Action, Visa Liberalisation with Kosovo. Roadmap, https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage_km/7209/ Roadmap-%20Visa%20Liberalisation%20with%20Kosovo [10.07.2019].
European Union Office in Kosovo/European Union Special Representative in Kosovo, Kosovo and the EU. An overview of relations between the EU and Kosovo, 2016, https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/kosovo_en/1387/ Kosovo*%20and%20the%20EU [04.07.2019].
Harland D., Kosovo and the UN, „Survival” 2010, vol. 52, no. 5.
Ibraj B., Cooperation Between Albania and Kosovo and Its Impact in Strengthe- ning the Rule of Law Against Transnational Organised Crime, 2008-2015,
„European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies” 2016, vol. 2, no. 4.
Kassof A.H., Plaks L. (eds), Catastrophe in the Balkans: Serbia’s Neighbors and the Kosovo Conflict, Princeton, New Jersey 1999.
Overseas Security Advisory Council, Kosovo 2016 Crime & Safety Report, https://www.osac.gov/Content/Report/daaff3b6-a600-4729-b74a- 15f4adb6408b [10.07.2019].
Overseas Security Advisory Council, Kosovo 2017 Crime & Safety Report, https://www.osac.gov/Content/Report/1b46b064-08b1-4f93-889a- 15f4ae020b1e [10.07.2019].
Overseas Security Advisory Council, Kosovo 2018 Crime & Safety Report, https://www.osac. gov/Content/Report/59a28c14-7777-4ae9-9e4a-15f4a- e534ceb [10.07.2019].
Pawłowski K., Państwowość Kosowa. Geneza, uwarunkowania, współczesność, Lublin 2018.
Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on progress by Kosovo* in fulfilling the requirements of the visa liberalization roadmap, Brussels, 08.02.2013.
Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. Fourth report on progress by Kosovo* in fulfilling the requirements of the visa liberalisation roadmap, Brussels, 04.05.2016.
Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. Second report on progress by Kosovo* in fulfilling the requirements of the visa liberalisation roadmap, Brussels, 24.07.2014.
Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. Third report on progress by Kosovo* in fulfilling the requirements of the visa liberalisation roadmap, Brussels, 18.12.2015.
Republic of Kosovo, Ministry of European Integration, Visa Liberalisation Roadmap, http://mei-ks.net/en/visa-liberalization-roadmap [10.07.2019].
Republic of Kosovo, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Annual Report 2017. Republic of Kosovo, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Kosovo Police Annual Work Report 2018.
Rettman A., Krasniqi E., Kosovo optimistic on EU prospects two years after independence, EUobserver, 17.02.2010, https://euobserver.com/enlargement/29492 [04.07.2019].
The Ministry of European Integration of the Republic of Kosovo, Stabilisation and Association Agreement, https://www.mei-ks.net/en/stabilization–association-brprocess- [04.07.2019].
The Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Interim Admini- stration Mission in Kosovo, S/1999/779, 12.07.1999.
Trading Economics, Kosovo Corruption Index, https://tradingeconomics. com/kosovo/corruption-index [16.07.2019].
Transparency International, Corruption Perceptions Index 2018, https://www. transparency.org/cpi2018 [04.07.2019].
UNDP, USAID, Action Paper on Schengen Visa Refusal Rate in Kosovo. Re- ducing the Schengen Visa Rejection Rate for Kosovar Citizens, December 2013, https://www.meiks.net/repository/docs/AP_on_Visa_eng.pdf [04.07.2019].
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999), S/RES/1244 (1999), 10.06.1999.