The article presents the process of shaping and stabilising of the natives’ statehood, of Tatars in particular, in the territory of Western Siberia at the turn of the Middle Ages and the modern period. As a result of these processes a state of Siberian Tatars was created, which was part of a greater Tatar and partly Islamic ecumene. The state formation processes also encompassed other ethnoses, for example Ostiaks and Voguls (Khants and Manses), who made greater supratribal political associations but under the Tatar control. The states of Western Siberian tribal nations collapsed due to the conquest made by Russia. Russian imperial policy aimed to eliminate the sense of the existence of a Tatar state before the Muscovite conquest, successfully attempting to Russify the lands, also in the cultural context.