Delivering Public Goods Through Law: The European Union as an Agent of change to Gender Equality Legislation in Poland

ORCID: Aleksandra Szczerba-Zawada: 0000-0001-7857-0554

ORCID: Aleksandra Szczerba-Zawada: 0000-0001-7857-0554

Strony: 81-101

Wydanie: Lublin 2017

DOI: --

Sposób cytowania: A. Szczerba-Zawada, ‘Delivering Public Goods Through Law: the European Union as an Agent of change to Gender Equality Legislation in Poland’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2017, pp. 81-101.

Słowa kluczowe: , , ,

Abstrakt: The aim of this paper is to outline the scope and character of the changes introduced to the Polish legal system with respect to gender equality as a result of the accession of the Republic of Poland to the European Union (EU) in 2004. Analysis concentrates on selected EU and Polish legal acts, as well as doctrine and statistical data. Reference is made to relevant case law of the Court of Justice of the EU and Polish courts. This paper seeks to draw out the fact that, if not for the nature of the EU as supranational organization that results in the legal obligation of its Member States to implement EU anti-discrimination law under the scrutiny of the competent international court (the CJEU), changes to the Polish legal system in the area of gender equality would have taken longer to implement, or may not have been made at all. The paper takes into consideration that the EU plays a key role in promoting gender equality as a public good, including beyond its borders, supporting third countries in achieving tangible gender equality results. In this respect, the EU’s actions help to promote gender equality as “shared global priority.”

Bibliografia:

2017 Report on equality between women and men in the EU, European Union 2017, pp. 45-47, ec.europa.eu/newsroom/document.cfm?doc_id=43416.

Aalto, P., Public Liability in EU law. Brasserie, Bergaderm and beyond, Oxford and Portland/Oregon: Hart Publishing, 2011.

Act of 26 June 1974 The Labour Code, Journal of Laws from 1974 No. 24 item 141 as amended.

Act of 5 January, 2011, Election Code, Journal of Laws from 2011 No. 21 item 112 as amended.

Act on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment (Anti-discrimination Act), Journal of Laws from 2010 No. 245 item 1700 as amended.

Bego, I., Gender Equality Policy in the European Union: A Fast Track to Parity for the New Member States, London: Palgrave Macmillan 2015.

Blackden, C. M., ‘Gender Equality and Global Public Goods: Some Reflections on Shared Priorities’, OECD, https://www.oecd.org/dac/gender-development/43882963.pdf [2017-09-14].

Boruta, I., ‘Zakaz dyskryminacji w zatrudnieniu – nowe pojęcie’, Monitor Prawa Pracy, no. 2, 2004, pp. 36-45.

Caruso, D., ‘Limits of the classic method: Positive action in the European Union after the new equality directives’, „Jean Monnet Working Paper”, no. 10, 2002, pp. 1-61.

Central Statistical Office, Labour force survey in Poland, Warsaw 2017.

Chamon, M., ‘Institutional balance and Community method in the implementation of EU legislation following the Lisbon Treaty’, Common Market Law Review 2016, vol. 53, issue 6, pp. 1501–1543.

CJEU judgment of 30 September 2003, C224/01, Köbler, EU:C:2003:513.

CJEU judgment of 15 July 1964, C-6/64, Costa, EU:C:1964:66.

CJEU judgment of 30 April 1996, C-13/94, P v S, EU:C:1996:170.

CJEU judgment of 5 February 1963, C-26/62, van Gend & Loos, EU:C:1963:1.

Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union, Official Journal of the European Union, C 326, 26 October 2012.

Council directive 2004/113/EC of 13 December 2004 implementing the principle of equal treatment between men and women in the access to and supply of goods and services, Official Journal of the European Union L 373, 21 December 2004.

Council directive 79/7/EEC of 19 December 1978 on the progressive implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women in matters of social security, Official Journal of the European Communities L 6, 10 January 1979.

Council Directive 92/85/EEC of 19 October 1992 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health at work of pregnant workers and workers who have recently given birth or are breastfeeding, Official Journal of the European Communities, L 348, 28 November 1992.

De Vos, M., ‘Beyond Formal Equality. Positive Action under Directives 2000/43/EC and 2000/78/EC’, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 2007.

Deloitte, Women in the boardroom. A global perspective – 5th edition, 2017, https://www2.deloitte.com/global/en/pages/risk/articles/women-in-theboardroom-a-global-perspective.html [2017-09-04].

Directive 2006/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2006 on the implementation of the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation (recast), Official Journal of the European Union, L 204, 26 July 2006.

Directive 2010/41/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 on the application of the principle of equal treatment between men and women engaged in an activity in a self-employed capacity and repealing Council Directive 86/613/EEC EU, Official Journal of the European Union L 180, 15 July 2010.

EIGE, ‘Gender Equality Index’, http://eige.europa.eu/gender-statistics/gender-equality-index [2017-09-02].

Ramos Martín, N. E., ‘Positive Action in EU Gender Equality Law: Promoting Women in Corporate Decision Making Positions’, Spanish Labour Law and Employment Relations Journal, vol. 3, issue 1-2, 2014, pp. 20-33.

European Commission at work, http://ec.europa.eu/atwork/applying-eu-law/infringements-proceedings/infringement_decisions/index.cfm?lang_code=EN&r_dossier=&noncom=0&decision_date_from=&decision_date_to=&active_only=0&EM=PL&title=&submit=Search, infringement number 20172119, http://www.sn.pl/sites/orzecznictwo/Orzeczenia3/II%20PK%20333-15-1.pdf [2017-09-04].

European Commission, Europe 2010. A European strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, http://ec.europa.eu/eu2020/pdf/COMPLET%20EN%20BARROSO%20%20%20007%20-%20Europe%202020%20-%20EN%20version.pdf [2017-09-08].

European Commission, Strategic engagement for gender equality 2016-2019, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union (2015), http://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/sites/antitrafficking/files/strategic_engagement_for_gender_equality_en.pdf [2017-09-08].

European Union 2017, ec.europa.eu/newsroom/document.cfm?doc_id=43416 [2017-09-04].

Gender Equality Index 2015 − Measuring gender equality in the European Union 2005-2012, European Institute for Gender Equality, 2015.

Joint Staff Working Document Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment: Transforming the Lives of Girls and Women through EU External Relations 2016-2020, SWD(2015) 182 final.

Kędziora, K., Śmiszek, K. (eds), Ustawa o wdrożeniu niektórych przepisów Unii Europejskiej w zakresie równego traktowania. Komentarz, Warszawa: Wolters Kluwer 2017.

Kurczewska, U., ‘Rola Unii Europejskiej w zarządzaniu globalnymi dobrami publicznymi w ramach polityki zrównoważonego rozwoju’, in: E. Latoszek, M. Proczek, M. Krukwoska (eds), Zrównoważony rozwój a globalne dobra publiczne w teorii i praktyce organizacji międzynarodowych, Warszawa: Szkoła Główna Handlowa, 2016.

Warat, M., ‘Development of Gender Equality Policies in Poland. A review of success and limitations’, Working paper no. 2.2, 2011, pp. 1-135.

Maliszewska-Nienartowicz, J., ‘Geneza i rozwój prawa antydyskryminacyjnego Unii Europejskiej’, in: A. Zawidzka-Łojek, A. Szczerba-Zawada (eds), Prawo antydyskryminacyjne Unii Europejskiej, Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy EuroPrawo 2015, pp. 13-40.

McCormick, J., Understanding the European Union. A Concise introduction, London: Pelgrave Macmillan, 2017.

Moravcsik, A., ‘Europe: Quietly Rising Superpower in a Bipolar World’, in: A.S. Alexandroff, A.F. Cooper (eds.), Rising States, Rising Institutions Challenges for Global Governance, Washington: Brookings Institution Press 2010, pp. 151-174.

Mulder, J., EU Non-Discrimination Law in the Courts: Approaches to Sex and Sexualities, Oxfords and Portland/Oregon: Hart Publishing 2017.

Neyer, J., The Justification of Europe. A Political Theory of Supranational Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, Nugent, N., The Government and Politics of the European Union, London: Pelgrave Macmillan, 2017.

Pachocka, M., Szczerba-Zawada, A., Eerma D., ‘Women on corporate boards in Poland and Estonia in the context of the EU gender equality policy’, in: M. Aluchna, G. Aras (eds), Women on corporate boards. An international perspective, London: Routledge (forthcoming).

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on improving the gender balance among non-executive directors of companies listed on stock exchanges and related measures.

COM/2012/0614 final – 2012/0299 (COD), http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=COM:2012:0614:FIN [2017-09-08].

Ramos Martín, N. E., ‘Positive Action in EU Gender Equality Law’, University of Amsterdam Working Paper 2013, no. 139, pp. 1-44.

Regulation of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education dated as of 25 October 2015, Journal of Laws from 2015 item 1879.

Szczerba-Zawada, A., ‘Działania pozytywne w prawie Unii Europejskiej – wyjątek od zasady równości czy narzędzie jej urzeczywistniania?’, in: J. Breczko, K. Karaskiewicz, T. Kozłowski, D. Stasi, M. Woch (eds), Prawo naturalne – Prawo pozytywne. Konflikt w interpretacji praw człowieka, Warszawa: EXPOL, 2016, pp. 149-164.

Szczerba-Zawada, A., ‘State responsibility for breach of EU principle of equal treatment’, in: L. Vojáček, P. Salák, J. Valdhans, DNY PRÁVA 2015 – DAYS OF LAW 2015. Část VI. Odpovědnost v právu, Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2016, pp. 226-239.

Szelewa, D., ‘The policy on gender equality in Poland’, European Parliament, May 2011.

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (consolidated versions), Official Journal of the European Union, C 326, 26 October 2012.

Słowa kluczowe: , , ,