The challenge of Populist Radical Right Parties to Europeanization – the cases of Estonia and Latvia, 2018-2021

Wyzwanie, jakie stawiają populistyczne partie radykalnej prawicy dla europeizacji: Przypadki Estonii i Łotwy w latach 2018-2021

| Aleksandra Kuczyńska-Zonik

ORCID: Aleksandra Kuczyńska-Zonik: 0000-0002-5672-9613

ORCID: Peteris F. Timofejevs: 0000-0002-0434-6776

Afiliacja: Umeå University, Sweden

ORCID: Peteris F. Timofejevs: 0000-0002-0434-6776

Strony: 143-175

Wydanie: Lublin 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2021.3.7

Sposób cytowania: P.F. Timofejevs, A. Kuczyńska-Zonik, The challenge of Populist Radical Right Parties to Europeanization – the cases of Estonia and Latvia, 2018-2021, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 19(2021), z. 3, s. 143-175, doi: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2021.3.7.

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Abstrakt: W ciągu ostatnich dwóch dekad prawo rodzinne w Europie Zachodniej uległo zmianom, poszerzając definicję małżeństwa o pary osób tej samej płci. Ponadto niektóre państwa Europy Wschodniej oferują prawne uznanie związków cywilnych par osób tej samej płci, podczas gdy inne w ogóle nie oferują żadnego prawnego uznania. Ta różnorodność w prawie rodzinnym została ostatnio zakwestionowana przez zmiany na poziomie europejskim. W pracy podjęto argumentację, że stanowi to presję adaptacyjną na te państwa członkowskie Unii Europejskiej (UE), które nie oferują żadnego uznania lub oferują jedynie formalne uznanie par osób tej samej płci. Badamy dwa przypadki, w których państwa członkowskie stanęły w obliczu takiej presji adaptacyjnej, a mianowicie Estonię i Łotwę, skupiając się na wzajemnym oddziaływaniu dwóch rodzajów czynników. Pierwszym z nich są instytucje formalne, które ze względu na swoją konstytucyjną rolę lub znawstwo prawa unijnego mogą pełnić funkcję czynnika sprzyjającego dla zmian prawnych. Z drugiej strony są także gracze polityczni, którzy próbowali ograniczyć taką adaptację. Przyglądamy się w tym opracowaniu zwłaszcza roli dwóch partii politycznych, które podjęły znaczny wysiłek, by przeciwstawić się zmianom w obu krajach. W pracy stwierdza się, że ideologiczna orientacja tych partii przynajmniej częściowo wyjaśnia ich sprzeciw wobec postępującej europeizacji prawa rodzinnego. Opracowanie kończy się omówieniem głównych ustaleń i ich implikacji.

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