Russian Federation relations with South and North Koreas and its role in the reunification of the peninsula – scenarios for the future

Katarzyna Pisarska

ORCID: Katarzyna Pisarska:

Strony: 87-106

Wydanie: Lublin 2018

DOI: --

Sposób cytowania: Katarzyna Pisarska, ‘Russian Federation relations with South and North Koreas and its role in the reunification of the peninsula – scenarios for the future’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2018, pp. 87-106.

Słowa kluczowe: , , ,

Abstrakt: The article examines Russian Federation’s relations with both South and North Korean in the years 1991-2018 and tries to make an assessment of the potential role Russia could play in a future reunification process of the peninsula. The author examines three possible scenarios of such a process: a peaceful reunification, a reunification that would result from North Korean regime’s collapse or from an all-out war on the peninsula. It is argued that although the Russian Federation might prefer to see the continuation of the current status quo, in case of any potential security environment shift the peaceful reunification scenario will best assure Russia’s interest in the region.


Ahn, B., ‘The Soviet Union and the Korean Peninsula’, Asian Affairs: An American Review, vol. 11, issue 4, 1985.
BBC, ‘Trump Kim summit: US and North Korean leaders hold historic’, News/World, 12 June 2018, [2018-08-03].
Business Korea, ‘Korean President Park Proposes “Silk Road Express” to Connect Eurasian Nations, Facilitate Exchanges’, News, 18 October 2013, [2017-03-12].
Cheang, C., ‘Can Russia help being cut out of North Korea negotiations?’, East Asia Forum, 7 July 2018, [2018-08-03].
Cherkashin, P., ‘Current Russian-North Korean relations and prospects of their development’, Russian International Affairs Council Blog, 25 August 2015, [2018-08-02].
Gelman, H. and N. D. Levin, ‘The Future of Soviet-North Korean Relations’, RAND Corporation Paper no. R-3159-AF, October 1984, [2017-03-17].
Global Firepower, ‘2018 Military Strength Ranking’, 18 April 2018, [2018-07-03].
Haggard, S. and M. Noland, ‘North Korea’s External Economic Relations’, Working Paper Series, Washington D.C.: Peterson Institute for Interna-tional Economics, August 2007, [2018-08-02].
Ivashentsov, G., ‘Prospects for Russia – Republic of Korea Relations’, in: I. S. Ivanov (ed.), Russia – Republic of Korea Relations: Revising the Bilateral Agenda, Russia International Affairs Council Working Paper, no. X1/2013, Moscow 2013.
Jakimowicz, R., Polityka Federacji Rosyjskiej wobec regionu Azji i Pacyfiku, Azji Centralnej i Arktyki [Russian Federation and its politics towards Asia, Pacific, Central Asia and the Arctic], Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 2015.
Jamestown Foundation, ‘Russia And North Korea Sign Friendship Treaty’, Monitor, vol. 6, issue 30, 17 February 2000, [2017-03-12].
Kim, DJ, ‘Russian influence on North Korea: views of former South Korean Ambassadors to Russia’, The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, vol. 24, no. 3, 2012.
Kim, S., ‘Korean unification costs would exceed $2.7 trillion: Researcher’,, 6 March 2014, [2017-02-28].
KITA, ‘K-Statistics by Country: Russia’, 7 July 2018, [2018-07-07].
Korean Rail Network Authority, ‘Trans-Korea railway & North Korean rail modernization’, News, December 2017, [2018-06-27].
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea, ‘Chapter 4: Strengthening Cooperation with Neighboring Countries: Korea – Russia Relations’, in: Diplomatic White Paper 2016, Seoul 2016.
Ministry of Unification of the Republic of Korea, ‘Initiative for Korean Unification’, Press Release, 27 March 2015, [2018-07-03].
Orlov, A. and K. Romanova, ‘Кимам простили долг – Россия спишет долги КНДР’,, 19 February 2014, [2018-08-02].
Park, Y. H., ‘South and North Korea’s Views on the Unification of the Korean Peninsula and Inter-Korean Relations’, Working Paper, Korean Institute for National Unification, 2nd KRIS-Brookings Joint Conference on “Security and Diplomatic Cooperation between ROK and US for the Unification of the Korean Peninsula”, 21 January 2014, [2018-08-03].
Radchenko, S., ‘Russia’s Policy in the Run-Up to the First North Korean Nuclear Crisis, 1991-1993’, Nuclear Proliferation International History Project Working Paper #4, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 13 February 2015,[2018-08-02].
Reuters, ‘Russia writes off 90 percent of North Korea’s debt’, News, 18 September 2012, [2017-03-02].
Rinna, A. V., ‘Here Is Why South Korea May Be Turning to Russia’, The National Interest, 6 February 2018, [2018-07-07].
Rozman, G., ‘South Korean Strategic Thought toward Russia’, in: G. Rozman and I. Hyun, S. Lee (eds), South Korean Strategic Thought toward Asia, New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2008.
Russia Beyond, ‘Seoul “punishes” Pyongyang by suspending Trans-Korean railway project’, News, 12 February 2016, [2017-03-24].
Stevenson, C., ‘Lavrov’s North Korea visit a reminder to Trump that Russia cannot be ignored’, The Independent, 31 May 2018, [2018-07-07].
Suslina, S., ‘Traditional and New Areas of Bilateral Trade’, in: I. S. Ivanov (ed.), Russia – Republic of Korea Relations: Revising the Bilateral Agenda, Russia International Affairs Council, Working Paper, no. X1/2013, Moscow 2013.
Talmadge, E., ‘Why Russia is bolstering ties with North Korea’, The Guardian, 4 June 2014, World/Europe, [2018-08-02].
The Economist, ‘What North and South Korea would gain if they were reunified’, Korea Opportunities, 5 May 2016, [2018-08-03].
Toloraya, G., ‘Inter-Korean Dialogue and Reconciliation Prospects’, in: Russia– Republic of Korea Relations: Revising The Bilateral Agenda, Russian International Affairs Council Working Paper, no. X1/2013.
Trenin, D., ‘Russia’s Asia Policy under Vladimir Putin, 2000-5’, in: G. Rozman and K. Togo, J. P. Ferguson (eds), Russian Strategic Thought toward Asia, New York: Palgrave, 2006.
Yakubovsky, V. , ‘The Future of Korean and Northeast Asia: Russian Concerns’, Paper presented at: 4th Europe-Northeast Asia Forum – The Future of Korea and Northeast Asia, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Berlin, 11-13 December 2003.
York, R., ‘Russia craves balance on the Korean Peninsula. To maintain an influence in North and South Korea, Moscow must “stand on both legs”: Experts’,, 2 November 2015, [2017-03-02].
Zakharova, L., ‘Economic cooperation between Russia and North Korea: New goals and new approaches’, Journal of Eurasian Studies, vol. 7, issue 2, July 2016.

Słowa kluczowe: , , ,