Polish energy strategy – in the quest for economy. Reflections on the Polish energy policy in the perspective of endogenous growth theory and global trends within the context of Visegrad cooperation

Polska strategia energetyczna – w pogoni za ekonomią. Refleksje nad polską polityką energetyczną w perspektywie teorii wzrostu endogenicznego i globalnych trendów w kontekście współpracy wyszehradzkiej

ORCID: Justyna Bokajło: 0000-0002-4953-6039

Afiliacja: University of Wroclaw, Poland

Strony: 117-139

Wydanie: Lublin 2020

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2020.1.7

Sposób cytowania: J. Bokajło, Polish energy strategy – in the quest for economy. Reflections on the Polish energy policy in the perspective of endogenous growth theory and global trends within the context of Visegrad cooperation, „Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej” 18(2020), z. 1, s. 117-139, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36874/RIESW.2020.1.7

Słowa kluczowe: , , , , ,

Abstrakt: Strategies are usually long-term plans. However, many problems appear if they are considered essential issues of social life and economic security, especially considering the need to make choices concerning conditions of limited resources. Another issue is the dilemma of achieving individual goals in the conditions of global interdependencies. One of the key requirements of nation-states is to ensure energy security; therefore, governments are strongly focused on establishing a stable, enduring, and useful energy strategy. Therefore, the point of importance is factors that will be able to ensure energy efficiency, economic stability, security, and in parallel, sustainable developmentboth on the national and global levels. Drawing from the above, this study investigates the reasons for the indispensability to carry out an energy market systemic reform in Poland with consideration of economic argumentation. The theories of economic growth, especially of endogenous kind, is taken into consideration. It is also argued that to achieve sustainable economic growth and social development in the long run, it would be reasonable to simultaneously concentrate on human capital and technologies. More advantages will be gained through intergovernmental cooperation, within regional groups such as the Visegrad Group and at the supranational EU level. This conviction is motivated by the principles of public choice theory.

Bibliografia:

Abdollahi, H., ‘Investigating Energy Use, Environment Pollution, and Economic Growth in Developing Countries’, Environmental and Climate Technologies, no. 24, 2020, https://doi.org/10.2478/rtuect-2020-0016.

Atkinson, R.D., Court, R.H., Ward, J.M., The State New Economy Index. Benchmarking Economic Transformation in the States, Progressive Policy Institute Technology & New Economy Project, 1999, http://www2.itif. org/1999-state-new-economy-index.pdf, https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1323828.

Bozuwa, J., Energy democracy: taking back power, The Next System Project 2019, https://thenextsystem.org/sites/default/files/2019-03/EnergyDemocracy-2-star-Final.pdf.

Bretan, J., Poland overtakes Germany as EU’s biggest coal generator, https:// notesfrompoland.com/2020/07/23/poland-overtakes-germany-as-eus-biggest-generator-of-electricity-from-coal/.

Cabada, L., ‘The Visegrad Cooperation in the Context of Other Central European Cooperation Formats’, Politics in Central Europe, vol. 14, no. 2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.2478/pce-2018-0014.

Dahl, M., Skomorokhova Y., ‘The Balance of Power in the European Union after Brexit’, Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Sociologia, vol. 62, issue 3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.24193/subbeuropaea.2017.3.12.

Edmond, Ch., Chart of the day: Is 2019 the beginning of the end for coal in Europe?, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/07/coal-generation-production-europe-2019-fall-renewable-lignite/.

Euracoal, The voice of coal in Europe, https://euracoal.eu/info/country-profiles/poland/.

Eurostat data, Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language =en&pcode=t2020_31&plugin=1.

Eurostat, Production of primary energy decreased between 2008 and 2018, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Energy_production_and_imports#Production_of_primary_energy_decreased_ between_2008_and_2018.

Eurostat, R+D expenditure, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-ex-plained/index.php?title=R_%26_D_expenditure#R_.26_D_expenditure_ by_sector_of_performance.

Fagerberg, J., ‘Technology and International Differences in Growth Rates’, Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 32, issue 3, 1994.

Giza, W., Zawodność rynku. Powstanie i rozwój idei, Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego, 2013, https://doi.org/10.12775/oec.2013.019.

Hein, E., ‘Secular Stagnation or Stagnation Policy? Steindl after Summers’, The Levy Economics Institute Working Paper, no. 846, 2015, https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2671879.

Infografika: Emisje gazów cieplarnianych w Unii Europejskiej, Parlament Europejski, https://www. europarl.europa.eu/news/pl/headlines/society/20180301STO98928/infografika-emisje-gazow-cieplarnianych-w-unii-europejskiej, https://doi.org/10.18778/0208-6018.313.03.

Jabłoński, Ł., ‘Ewolucja poglądów na temat konwergencji w ekonomii rozwoju’, Gospodarka Narodowa, no. 5-6, 2008, https://doi.org/10.33119/gn/101304.

Jakubowski, M., ‘Public goods and common goods’, in: Teoria wyboru publicznego. Główne nurty i zastosowania, ed. J. Wilkin, Warszawa: Scholar, 2012.

Jamet, M., Amiel, S., EU still among top 3 world CO2 emitters, new data shows, Euronews, https://www.euronews.com/2019/12/05/eu-still-among-top-3-world-co2- emitters-new-data-shows.

Jędrzejowski, J., Jaka powinna być polska energetyka przyszłości, https:// energia.rp.pl/akcje-specjalne/walka-o-klimat/18903-jaka-powinna-byc-polska-energetyka-przyszlosci.

Kraft, J., Kraft, A., ‘On the relationship between energy and GNP’, Journal of Energy and Development, vol. 3, 1978.

Liberda, B.Z., Maj, E., Idee i nowoczesny wzrost, http://www.aig.pte.pl/ pliki/0/247/B_Liberda_E_Maj_Idee%20_i_wzrost.pdf.

Mair, S., Capital, Capitalism, and Climate in Adam Smith’s Growth Theory, Geneva: Centre for the Understanding of Sustainable Prosperity, 2018.

Majski, Ch., Human Capital vs. Physical Capital: What’s the Difference?, Investopedia, https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/062616/human-capital-vs-physical-capital-what-difference.asp.

Malaczewski, M., ‘Complementarity between energy and physical capital in a simple model of economic growth’, Economic Research – Ekonomska Istraživanja, vol. 31, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677x.2018.1456353.

Mankiw, N.G., Romer, D., Weil, D.N., ‘A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 107, issue 2, 1992.

Morgan, S., Poland stokes dispute over net-zero emissions price and meaning, Euractiv, https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy-environment/news/poland-stokes-dispute-over-net-zero-emissions-price-and-meaning/.

Nonneman, W., Vanhoudt, P., ‘A Further Augmentation of the Solow Model and the Empirics of Economic Growth for OECD Countries’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 111, issue 3, 1996, https://doi.org/10.2307/2946677.

OECD, Gross domestic spending on R & D, https://data.oecd.org/rd/gross-domestic-spending-on-r-d.htm.

OWC Außenwirtschaft, Visegrád-Länder wollen Energiesicherheit, https://legacy.owc.de/2013/10/21/visegrad-laender-wollen-energiesicherheit/.

Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Występowanie, zasoby i złoża węgla brunatnego w Polsce, https://www.pgi.gov.pl/psg-1/psg-2/informacja-i-szkolenia/ wiadomosci-surowcowe/10421-wystepowanie-zasoby-i-zloza-wegla-brunatnego-w-polsce.html.

Romer, P.M., Human Capital and Growth: Theory and Evidence, Working Paper, no. 3173, prepared for the April 1989 Carnegie-Rochester Conference.

Saidi, K., Hammami, S., ‘Economic growth, energy consumption and carbone dioxide emissions: recent evidence from panel data analysis for 58 countries’, Quality and Quantity, vol. 50, issue 1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-014-0153-1.

Saidi, K., Mafizur Rahman, M., ‘The link between environmental quality, economic growth, and energy use: new evidence from five OPEC countries, Environment Systems and Decisions’, Environment Systems & De-cisions, March 2020, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-020-09762-3.

Simon, F., European coal power output sees ‘unprecedented’ decline, Euractiv, https://www.euractiv.com/section/emissions-trading-scheme/news/european-coal-power-output-saw-unprecedented-drop-in-2019/.

Soava, G., Mehedintu, A., Sterpu, M. et al., ‘Impact of renewable energy consumption on economic growth: evidence from European Union countries’, Technological and Economic Development of Economy, vol. 24, issue 3, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3846/tede.2018.1426.

Statista, Electricity production from hard coal in Central and Eastern European countries in 2019, https://www.statista.com/statistics/1094556/cee-power-production-from-hard-coal/.

Stern, D.I., Cleveland, C.J., ‘Energy and Economic Growth’, Rensselaer Working Paper in Economics, Troy: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics, 2004.

The Bratislava Declaration of the Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Poland and the Slovak Republic on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Visegrad Group, Bratislava, 15 February 2011.

The Committee for the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, Economic Growth, Technological Change, and Climate Change, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2018.

Toman, M., Jemelkova, B., ‘Energy and Economie Development: An Assessment of the State of Knowledge’, The Energy Journal, no. 24, issue 4, 2003.

Visegrad Group: A new economic heart of Europe?, https://www.dw.com/en/visegrad-group-a-new-economic-heart-of-europe/a-49483505.

Waldholz, R., ‘Germany marks first ever quarter with more than 50 pct renewable electricity’, Clean Energy Wire, The Committee for the Prize, https://www.cleanenergywire. org/news/germany-marks-first-ever-quarter-more-50-pct-renewable-electricity.

Wójcik, T., W 2018 roku Polskę zasypią tony węgla ze Wschodu, Biznes Alert, http://biznesalert.pl/wegiel-polska-rosja/.

World energy mix 2020, The Economist Intelligence Unit, http://www.eiu.com/industry/energy.

Yao, Y., Ivanovski, K., Inekwe, J. et al., ‘Human capital and energy consumption: Evidence from OECD countries’, Energy Economics, vol. 84, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2019.104534.

Słowa kluczowe: , , , , ,