The article intends to verify and reconstruct history of Chełm and its eparchy as reported by the Galician-Volhynian Chronicle. During Tatar invasion Chełm remained intact. That is why Daniel decided to make this town his residence. Probably in 1241, but not later than in 1246/1247 (I suppose however, that this was nearer 1241) bishopric was transferred to Chełm from Uhrusk. From 1253 Chełm became king’s Daniel’s residence.
This article considers all the source references regarding the coronation insignia of Daniel Romanowicz, the ruler of the Galician-Volhynian Principality. It has been established that most likely they origin from a workshop in either north Italy or south Germany and presently should be regarded as unaccounted for. Believed to be related to King Daniel’s coronation insignia, the so-called mitre of the bishops of Przemyśl, presently missing as well, was in fact made at the beginning of the 18th century to order of the Uniate bishop of Przemyśl, Jerzy Winnicki, and has no ideological connection whatsoever with regalia of Old Rus’.
The article addresses the subject of Prince Daniel Romanowicz’s activity in the military domain against the background of the general military advancement of the states of Central and Eastern Europe in the 13th century. It puts a particular emphasis on the differences in organisation of Galician- Volhynian armies compared to the military forces of their eastern and western neighbours. It is being highlighted that, compared to those, the Prince of Rus’ has managed to assemble quite a formidable military power, which spontaneously combined military traditions of the eastern and western states.
Based on the published sources and historians’ elaborations, this article describes the main military campaigns of the Prince’s army against the Golden Horde. Although the Galician-Volhynian prince in 1245 was forced to visit the Golden Horde’s capital, Saraj, and take a bow before the Khan, in reality was never made his vassal.
To conduct proper diplomatic policy is one of the most important and characteristic aspect in every country life. Based on numerous materials presented in the article, it seems that Prince Daniel, later king of Russia, was this type of 13th century politician who had all qualities to conduct successful cooperation with his neighbors. At the same time, these neighbors were often the enemies of Prince Daniel. The development of Chełm is also to Prince Daniel’s merit. It was done when he established Chełm as a capital of his country.
This article analyses the stages in which Ukrainian historiography presents the figure of the prince and king Daniel Romanowicz, during whose reign the Galician-Volhynian state had reached the peak of its development. The authors had thoroughly analysed the results of numerous scientific researches, published in print since the latter half of the 19th century until the beginning of the 21st century. It especially takes into account monographs, articles and collective thematic works, which illustrate all the aspects of King Daniel’s activity – a distinguished statesman, an excellent leader, a talented diplomat, creator and reformer. Whilst analysing the Ukrainian scholars’ achievements, the authors of the article had focused on the most important issues in their counterparts’ works, especially those which still remain unsettled.
The origins of Chełm are inexplicably connected with the Cathedral Mountain – a place where the centre of princely and sacral authority was found. Archaeological excavations carried out in the last 100 years have proved the existence of a unique, 13th century establishment comprising the prince’s residence and a sacral structure built in brick. This discovery puts before us a major challenge of introducing relics into social circulation. It appears necessary to create a “municipal conservatory programme” for the site of High Mountain, which would take into account the archaeological, historical and architectonic characteristics of the object, and would constitute a foundation for further preservative and exhibitory actions. Another step is a discussion on how to properly preserve and protect the walls and in what manner to exhibit them. For purpose of comparison one might take a look at the restoration of relics in Ostrów Lednicki, Gniezno, Poznań, Gdańsk or Cracow. An interesting example is the Archaeological Park in Xanten (North Rhine – Westphalia, Germany).
The strategic positioning of the Ratno wedge, which during the late Middle Ages is included in the land of Chelm, has conditioned the development of particular forms of fortification of its inhabited settlements. For this reason, widespread was the type of fortification, characteristic to west European castles, which had a “motte”, a mound with a level surface on top (Ratno, Luboml, Wietły, Wyżwa Nowa). The prevalence of the concept of building a separate tower atop a knoll can be related to the 13th century, when in Polesia the so-called “volhynian towers” were being built. One of such towers was placed on a hill in the territory of the former Rus’ Uhrowsk – the predecessor of Chełm as the administrative centre of the principality.
In the article, the Author presents a fragment of the instruction given to apostolic nuncio Lorenzo Lauri (1921-1927) by the Secretariat of State of the Hole See. The instruction includes the description of political situation as well as guidelines on how to deal with the matters occurring behind the eastern border of the Polish Republic. The source is important because it also outlines the political situation of Lauri’s successor, Francesco Marmaggi, nuncio in the years 1928-1935. The files of the Warsaw Nunciature from the period 1921-1939 were declassified by Benedict XVI in 2006. They include much valuable information concerning nuncios’ political activity and show the Holy See’s political assessment of actions taken by Polish authorities.
The present paper discusses legal aspects of the introduction of the euro in selected countries of Central and Eastern Europe: Slovakia, Estonia and Latvia. The choice of countries was dictated by the chronology of accession to the European Monetary System, attributable to differing conditions in the macroeconomic environment. Slovakia was incorporated into the system in 2009 – the year in which the first phase of the financial crisis started, Estonia – in 2011 – in which the financial crisis was very intense, Latvia – in 2014 – the year in which the first symptoms of post-crisis economic recovery were observed. This article is an attempt to analyze and synthesize the regulation of different legal systems, whose introduction and adaptation to European Union law is one of the key conditions for effective implementation of the euro in domestic orders.