Minorities, diasporas, refugees in contemporary Europe

Redakcja zeszytu: Marta Pachocka, Aleksandra Kuczyńska-Zonik

ISSN: 1732-1395

e-ISSN: 2719-2911

Liczba stron: 209

Wydawca: Instytut Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej

Wydanie: Lublin 2017



Minorities, Diasporas, Refugees in Contemporary Europe

Liczba wyświetleń: 818
Wkrótce nowe informacje.
M. Pachocka, A. Kuczyńska-Zonik, ‘Minorities, Diasporas, Refugees in Contemporary Europe’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2017, pp. 7-10.

Mazzucelli, C.G., Visvizi, A. and R. Bee, ‘Secular States in a “Security Communi ty”: The Migration-Terrorism Nexus?’, Journal of Strategic Security, vol. 9, no. 3, 2016, pp. 16-27.

Pachocka, M., ‘The Eastern Partnership in Times of the Migrant and Refugee Crisis in the European Union’, in: C.E. Pacheco Amaral, V. Cucerescu, G. Gabrichidze, I. Horga, A. Kruglashov, E. Latoszek and M. Pachocka (eds), EU Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine: Through Cooperation Towards Integration, Chişinău-Tbilisi-Chernivtsi: Tipografia “Print-Caro”, 2017, pp. 17-31.

Pachocka, M., ‘The twin migration and refugee crises in Europe: examining the OECD’s contribution to the debate’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, vol. 14, no. 4, 2016, pp. 71-99.

Visvizi, A., Mazzucelli, C. and M. Lytras, ‘Irregular migratory flows: Towards an ICTs’ enabled integrated framework for resilient urban systems’, Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 8, no. 2, 2017, pp. 227-242.


Closing Gates to Refugees: The Causes and Effects of the 2015 “Migration Crisis” on Border Management in Hungary and Poland

Liczba wyświetleń: 926
In this paper, I demonstrate the process of treating asylum seekers and refugees as a dangerous enemy. Those two groups of immigrants find themselves at the receiving end of measures that infringe basic humanitarian laws and human rights, and are so inhumane that no one would ever dare to introduce them on their own citizens. Equating refugees with terrorists and prioritizing security constitute two pillars of the ruling parties’ policy in Poland and Hungary. Apart from technical security measures (like fences), both governments adopt additional instruments to discourage migrants from coming or encourage them to leave (like creating obstacles to let them onto the territory of the country, refusing to grant them international protection, making their integration difficult or almost impossible). Such activity fulfils the definition of “Fortress Europe”, which is not only about building stone walls or fences but about increasing control of every aspect of migrants’ lives as well.

W. Klaus, ‘Closing Gates to Refugees: The Causes and Effects of the 2015 “Migration Crisis” on Border Management in Hungary and Poland’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2017, pp. 11-34.

Aas, K., ‘“Crimmigrant” bodies and bona fide travelers: Surveillance, citizenship and global governance’, Theoretical Criminology, vol. 15, no. 3, 2011, pp. 331-346.
Aas, K. and H.O.I. Gundhus, ‘Policing Humanitarian Borderlands: Frontex, Human Rights and the Precariousness of Life’, British Journal of Criminology, vol. 55, no. 1, 2015, pp. 1-18.
Albrecht, H.J., ‘Fortress Europe?—Controlling Illegal Immigration’, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, vol. 10, no. 1, 2002, pp. 1-22.
Bakonyi, A., Léderer, A. and Z. Szerekes, Best Interest Out of Sight—The Treatment of Asylum Seeking Children in Hungary, Budapest: Hungarian Helsinki Committee, 2017.
Bard, P., ‘What is behind the low number of hate crimes in Hungary?’, Criminology in Europe, vol. 16, no. 1, 2017, pp. 10-11.
Border Guards Statistical Bulletin for the 1st half of 2017 [Biuletyn statystyczny Straży Granicznej za I półrocze 2017 r.], http://strazgraniczna.pl/download/1/14456/bieltynIpolrocze2017.pdf, p. 8 [2017-08-22].
Brandariz García, J.Á. and C. Fernández Bessa, ‘The Construction of Migrants as a Risk Category in the Spanish Penal System’, in: S. Palidda (ed), Racial Criminalization of Migrants in the 21st Century, Farnham-Burlington: Ashgate, 2011, p. 198-212.
Caestecker, F. and B. Moore, ‘A Comparative Analysis of Immigration Policies of Liberal States in Western Europe and the Flight from Nazi Germany’, in: F. Caestecker and B. Moore (eds), Refugees from Nazi Germany and the Liberal European States, New York-Oxford: Berghahn, 2010, pp. 191-312.
Chrzanowska, A. et al., At the border. Report on monitoring of access to the procedure for granting international protection at border crossings in Terespol, Medyka, and Warszawa-Okęcie Airport, Warsaw: Association for Legal Intervention, 2016, http://interwencjaprawna.pl/en/files/at-theborder.pdf [2017-08-11].
Dauvergne, C., ‘The Troublesome Intersections of Refugee Law and Criminal Law’, in: K. Aas and M. Bosworth (eds), The Borders of Punishment. Migration, Citizenship, and Social Exclusion, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 76-90.
Directive 2013/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection.
European Commission, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1285_en.htm [2017-08-21].
European Court of Human Rights, M.A. and Others v. Poland (42902/17), http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-176484 [2017-08-24].
European Court of Human Rights, Ilias and Ahmed v. Hungary, http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng#{%22itemid%22:[%22001-172091%22] [2017-08-21].
European Court of Human Rights, M.K. v. Poland (40503/17), http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-176229 [2017-08-21].
European Court of Human Rights, M.K. and Others v. Poland (43643/17), http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-176472 [2017-08-21].
Fekete, L., A Suitable Enemy. Racism, Migration and Islamophobia in Europe, London-New York: Pluto Press, 2009.
Górczyńska, M. and M. Szczepanik, A road to nowhere. The account of a monitoring visit at the Brześć-Terespol border crossing between Poland and Belarus, Warsaw: Helsinki Fundation for Human Rights, 2016, http://www.hfhr.pl/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/A-road-to-nowhere.-The-account-of-a-monitoring-visit-at-the-Brze%C5%9B%C4%87-Terespol-border-crossing-point-FINAL.pdf [2017-08-11].
Granet, M., Cywilizacja chińska [Chineese civilisation], Warsaw: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1995.
Heemsbergen, L. and A. Daly, ‘Leaking Boats and Borders: The Virtu of surveilling Australia’s refugee population’, Surveillance & Society, vol. 15, no. 3/4, 2017, pp. 389-396.
Herlin-Karnell, E., ‘The domination of security and the promise of justice: on justification and proportionality in Europe’s “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice”’, Transnational Legal Theory, vol. 8, no. 1, 2017, pp. 79-102.
Hungary: Government’s New Asylum Bill on Collective Push-backs and Automatic Detention, Hungarian Helsinki Committee, 15 February 2017, http://www.helsinki.hu/wp-content/uploads/HHC-Info-Update-New-Asylum-Bill-15.02.2017.pdf [2017-08-11].
Hungary: Key Asylum Figures as of 1 August 2017, Hungarian Helsinki Committee, http://www.helsinki.hu/wp-content/uploads/HHC-Hungary-asylum-figures-1-August-2017.pdf [2017-08-11].
Hungary: Turbulent 50 days—an update on the Hungarian asylum situation, Hungarian Helsinki Committee, 22 May 2017, http://www.helsinki.hu/wp-content/uploads/HHC-Info-Update-50-days-after.pdf [2017-08-11].
Huysmans, J., ‘The European Union Securitization of Migration’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 38, no. 5, 2000, pp. 751-777.
Kaczmarczyk, P., ‘Polska jako kraj emigracji i imigracji’ [Poland as an emigration and immigration country], in: P. Kaczmarczyk (ed), Mobilność i migracje w dobie transformacji. Wyzwania metodologiczne [Mobility and migration in the time of transformation. Methodological challenges], Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, 2011, pp. 14-37.
Kallius, A., Monterescu, D. and P. Kumar Rajaram, ‘Immobilizing mobility: Border ethnography, illiberal democracy, and the politics of the “refugee crisis” in Hungary’, American Ethnologist, vol. 43, no. 1, 2016, pp. 1-13.
Klaus, W. et al., ‘Refugees and asylum seekers in Central-European Countries—reality, politics and the creation of fear in societies’, in: H. Kury and S. Redo (eds), Refugee Law and Policy. Challenges and Opportunities for Global Civic Education, Springer International Publishing, forthcoming.
Klaus, W., ‘Security First—New Right-Wing Government in Poland and its Policy Towards Immigrants and Refugees’, Surveillance and Society, vol. 15, no. 3/4, 2017, pp. 523-528.
Kmak, M., ‘‘‘The Ugly” of EU Migration Policy: The role of the Recast Reception Directive in Fragmentation of the Refugee Subject’, in: D.A. Gozdecka and M. Kmak (eds), Europe at the Edge of Pluralism, Cambridge, Antwerp and Portland: Intersentia Publishing, 2015, pp. 83-94.
Komornicki, T., Granice Polski. Analiza zmian przenikalności w latach 1990-1996 [Polish borders. Analisys of changes in permeability between 1990 and 1996], Warsaw: Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN, 1997.
Letter from the Department for Analysis and Migration Policy of MSWiA of 9 August 2017, reference no. DAiPM-WSNPA-0231-2/2016.
Łukasiewicz, K., ‘„Integracja” po polsku. Strategie adaptacyjne uchodźców czeczeńskich w Polsce’ [Polish style of ‘integration’. Strategies of adaptation of Chechen refugees in Poland], Studia Migracyjne—Przegląd Polonijny [Migration Studies—Review of Polish Diaspora], no. 2, 2011, pp. 201-220.
Nagy, B., ‘Hungarian Asylum Law and Policy in 2015-2016: Securitization Instead of Loyal Cooperation’, German Law Journal, vol. 17, no. 6, 2016, pp. 1033-1082.
Nagy, B., Sharing the Responsibility or Shifting the Focus? The Responses of the EU and the Visegrad Countries to the Post-2015 Arrival of Migrants and Refugees, Budapest: Central European University, 2017.
Nail, T., The Figure of the Migrant, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2015.
Pachocka, M., ‘The Eastern Partnership in Times of the Migrant and Refugee Crisis in the European Union’, in: C.E. Pacheco Amaral, V. Cucerescu, G. Gabrichidze, I. Horga, A. Kruglashov, E. Latoszek and M. Pachocka (eds), EU Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine: Through Cooperation Towards Integration, Chișinău-Tbilisi-Chernivtsi: Tipografia “Print-Caro”, 2017, pp. 17-31.
Pachocka, M., ‘The European Union in Times of Migrant and Refugee Crises’, in: V. Beniuc and L. Rosca (eds), Peculiarities of development in a globalized world economy, Chisinau: Institute of International Relations of Moldova, 2016, pp. 86-100.
Pietraszczyk, M., ‘Funkcjonowanie Straży Granicznej w warunkach strefy Schengen’ [The work of the Polish Border Guards under the Schengen Area regulations], in: Polska w strefie Schengen. Refleksje po pierwszym roku członkostwa [Poland in the Schengen Area. Reflections after first year of membership], Warsaw: MSWiA, 2008, pp. 64-72.
Rodziński, W., Historia Chin [The History of China], Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków: Ossolineum, 1992.
Simonovits, B. and A. Bernát (eds), The Social Aspects of the 2015 Migration Crisis in Hungary, Budapest: TÁRKI Social Research Institute, 2016.
Statistics by Office for Foreigners, https://udsc.gov.pl/statystyki/raportyokresowe/zestawienia-roczne/ [2017-08-24].
Straż Graniczna [Border Guard], http://strazgraniczna.pl/pl/granica/statystyki-sg/2206,Statystyki-SG.html [2017-08-22].
The reply to parliamentary question on the protection of Polish Eastern border from inflow of illegal immigrants (interpellation nr 82), http://www.sejm.gov.pl/Sejm8.nsf/InterpelacjaTresc.xsp?key=069165C9 [2017-08-22].
Under Destruction: Dismantling Refugee Protection in Hungary in 2016, Hungarian Helsinki Committee, March 2017, http://www.helsinki.hu/wp-content/uploads/Under-destruction_2016.pdf [2017-08-11].
Valluy, J., ‘The Metamorphosis of Asylum in Europe: From the Origins of “Fake Refugees” to their Internment’, in: S. Palidda (ed), Racial Criminalization of Migrants in the 21st Century, Farnham-Burlington: Ashgate, 2011, pp. 107-117.
Winslow, A.M., ‘Shifting Immigration Policies in Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis Across the European Union: A Case Analysis of Germany, Hungary, and Lithuania’, Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union, vol. 2016, Article 9, 2016, pp. 101-113.
Young, J., The Vertigo of Late Modernity, Los Angeles-London-New Delhi, Singapore: Sage 2007.
Zeldin, W., Hungary: New Law Permits Army’s Use of Non-Lethal Weapons Against Illegal Migrants, 6 November 2015, https://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/hungary-new-law-permits-armys-use-of-non-lethalweapons-against-illegal-migrants/ [2017-08-18].


“Take Back Control of Our Borders”: The Role of Arguments about Controlling Immigration in the Brexit Debate

Liczba wyświetleń: 846
In the run-up to Brexit, the British referendum on leaving the European Union (EU), immigration was one of the top issues of concern to voters. Discussions about immigration dominated the campaigns, with the “Vote Leave” campaign linking leaving the EU with the opportunity to prevent immigration into the United Kingdom (UK). The focus on this was in part due to the migration and ‘refugee crisis’ in Europe that coincided with the referendum. This paper presents an analysis of how the key players in the Brexit debate focused on immigration. The question is, therefore, how did the participants in the Brexit debate talk about immigration and what did this talk accomplish. Discourse analysis of campaign coverage reveals that: 1. Leave campaigners presented immigration as out of control, including that from within and outside of the EU and those arriving in Europe as refugees; 2. “Remain” campaigners presented Brexit as an ineffective way of controlling migration; and, 3., in limited cases, immigration was presented as beneficial. The conclusion is that the focus on immigration appeared to have been a major factor in the eventual success of the Leave campaign. Although it remains to be seen what impact Brexit will have on immigration, opposition to immigration has become mainstream.

S. Goodman, ‘“Take Back Control of Our Borders”: The Role of Arguments about Controlling Immigration in the Brexit Debate’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2017, pp. 35-53.

Britain Stronger in Europe, Will immigration go down if we leave the EU?, http://www.strongerin.co.uk/immigration [2017-08-10].
Edwards, D. and J. Potter, Discursive Psychology, London: Sage, 1992.
Hope, C. and K. McCann, ‘Net migration from Eastern Europe to Britain slows to a trickle after Brexit vote’, The Telegraph, 25 May 2017.
Facebook ‘Vote Leave’, 23 May 2016, https://www.facebook.com/voteleave/photos/a.512228762287386.1073741828.505084413001821/598515206992074/?type=3&theater [2017-09-05].
Gibson, S., ‘Constructions of “the Polish” in northern England: Findings from a qualitative interview study’, Journal of Social & Political Psychology, vol. 3, 2015, pp. 43-62.
Gibson, S., Crossland M. and J. Hamilton, ‘Social citizenship and immigration: Employment, welfare, and effortfulness in online discourse concerning migration to the United Kingdom’, Qualitative Psychology, 2017, DOI:10.1037/qup0000078.
Grice, A., ‘EU referendum: Poll reveals 10-point swing towards Brexit as Leave campaign gains momentum’, The Independent, 10 June 2016.
Kirkwood, S. and S. Goodman, ‘Discursive psychological research on refugees’, in: S. Gibson (ed), Discourse, peace and conflict: Discursive psychology perspectives, in press.
Goodman, S., ‘“It’s not Racist to Impose Limits on Immigration”: Constructing the Boundaries of Racism in the Asylum and Immigration debate’, Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across disciplines, vol. 4, no. 1, 2010, pp. 1-17.
Goodman, S. and A. Narang, ‘“Sad day for the UK”: The linking of debates about settling refugee children in the UK with Brexit’, under review.
Goodman, S. and S. Speer, ‘Category use in the construction of asylum seekers’, Critical Discourse Studies, vol. 4, no. 2, 2007, pp. 165-185.
Mason, R. and H. Stewart, ‘Brexit would not mean a big drop in immigration, Hilary Benn says’, The Guardian, 13 June 2016.
Morris N., ‘General Election 2015: Immigration—how the parties are playing the numbers game’, The Independent, 22 April 2015.
Office for national statistics, Population of the UK by Country of Birth and Nationality: 2015, https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/internationalmigration/bulletins/ukpopulationbycountryofbirthandnationality/august2016 [2017-08-10].
Sharman, J. and I. Jones, ‘Hate crimes rise by up to 100 per cent across England and Wales, figures reveal’, The Independent, 15 February 2017.
Smith, M., ‘Pro-Brexit Wetherspoons boss admits he employs 3,500 staff from overseas’, The Mirror, 3 June 2016.
Stone, J., ‘Leaving the EU will not stop immigration to the UK, says leader of campaign to stay in the EU Stuart Rose’, The Independent, 25 January 2016.
Taylor, A., ‘General Election 2015: Immigration—how the parties are playing the numbers game’, The Independent, 22 April 2015.
Taylor, L., ‘UK asylum claims drop despite rising Middle East refugee crisis’, The Independent, 24 February 2017.
The electoral commission, EU Referendum results, https://www.electoralcommission.org.uk/find-information-by-subject/elections-and-referendums/upcoming-elections-and-referendums/eu-referendum/electorate-and-count-information [2017-08-10].
Travis, A., ‘Mass EU migration into Britain is actually good news for UK economy’, The Guardian, 18 February 2016.
Travis, A., ‘Fewer Britons living in EU than previously thought, study finds’, The Guardian, 27 January 2017.
UKIP, UKIP national billboard campaign, http://www.ukip.org/ukip_national_billboard_campaign [2017-09-05].
UNHCR, A million refugees and migrants flee to Europe in 2015, http://www.unhcr.org/567918556.html [2017-08-10].
Wood, V., ‘“Migration is OUT OF CONTROL”: Farage blasts Government’s European Union immigration farce’, The Express, 14 May 2016.
Wood, Z., ‘UK labour shortages reported as EU worker numbers fall’, The Guardian, 13 February, 2017.
Zeffman, H., ‘Leave will leap on the immigration rise, but Brexit would not make much difference’, The New Statesman, 26 May 2016.


The Netherlands and the Migration Crisis

Liczba wyświetleń: 880
The Netherlands is a country with long-standing ties to migration. It once offered a new home to many people whose religious beliefs, political views or economic situation had forced them out of their countries of origin. For many years, the country implemented a model of a multicultural society, which essentially meant “live and let live”. But the external situation, the radicalization of sentiments in other European and non-European societies, and conflicts in North Africa and the Middle East that have triggered further waves of refugees, have sparked fears and the desire to shut oneself off from danger. This atmosphere provides fuel for populist politicians. Dutch society is moving away from the model it has been known for—tolerance. What the new model in the Netherlands will be, depends on how the Dutch authorities manage the dialogue with the Dutch public.

M. Pacek, ‘The Netherlands and the Migration Crisis’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2017, pp. 55-72.

Balicki, J. and M. Bogucka, Historia Holandii [The History of the Netherlands], Wrocław, 1989.
‘Bójki, podpalenia i ostry spór o uchodźców w Holandii. Król apeluje o spokój: “Przemoc nie jest rozwiązaniem!”’ [Fights and arson and a violent dispute over refugees in the Netherlands: ‘Violence is not a Solution’], wPolityce. pl, 29 October 2015, https://wpolityce.pl/swiat/270147-bojki-podpaleniai-ostry-spor-o-uchodzcow-w-holandii-krol-apeluje-o-spokoj-przemocnie-jest-rozwiazaniem-wideo [2017-10-13].
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, Geneva, 28 July 1951, http://www.unhcr.org [2017-10-13].
Council Decision (EU) 2015/1601 of 22 September 2015 establishing provisional measures in the area of international protection for the benefit of Italy and Greece. CBS Statistics Netherlands, http://statline.cbs.nl/Statweb/publication/?DM=SLEN&PA=80059eng&D1=0-1,3&D2=0-3,5,14,19,21,29-30,43,62,64-66,72,l&D3=0,10,20,30,35,38-41&LA=EN&HDR=T,G2&STB=G1&VW=T [2017-10-13].
Dynarowicz, E., ‘Holendrzy wbijają uchodźcom nóż w plecy. Kader Abdolah o holenderskiej tolerancji’ [The Dutch put a knife in the refugees’ backs. Kader Abdolah on Dutch tolerance’ ], Czas Kultury, no. 1, 2013.
EU Dublin III Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 604/2013).
‘Gemengde gevoelens na verhit debat over opvang vluchtelingen’ [Mixed feelings after heated debate on refugees], Trouw, https://www.trouw.nl/home/gemengde-gevoelens-na-verhit-debat-over-opvang-vluchtelingen~ac548def/ [2017-08-21].
Gul-Rechlewicz, V., ‘Polityka imigracyjna Holandii i Szwecji—analiza porównawcza’ [The Dutch and Swedish Migration Policies—A Comparison], Drohiczyński Przegląd Naukowy, no. 7, 2015.
‘Holandia: Stan alarmowy na południu kraju. Imigranci demolują miasto’ [The Netherlands: A state of emergency in the south of the country. Immigrants demolish a city], Wiadomości Pikio, 5 October 2016, http://pikio.pl/holandia-stan-alarmowy-na-poludniu-kraju-imigranci-demoluja-miasto/# [2017-10-13].
IND, https://ind.nl/en/asylum/Pages/ Asylum-seeker.aspx [2017-08-20]
Immigratie en Naturalisatiedienst [Immigration and Naturalization Service], https://ind.nl/en/asylum/Pages/Asylum-seeker.aspx [2017-08-20].
Klaver, J., Local responses to the refugee crisis in the Netherlands. Reception and integration, Warsaw, 2016.
Mikulska, M., ‘Holandia: Nie chcą ośrodka dla uchodźców’ [The Netherlands: They do not want a refugee centre], Rzeczpospolita, 17 December 2015.
Official website of the Government of the Netherlands, https://www.government.nl/topics/asylum-policy/refugees-in-the-netherlands [2017-08-21].
Skajewska, M., Holandia: raport o życiu w obozach dla uchodźców [The Netherlands: A report on the life in refugee camps], Polskie Radio, 31 January 2016, http://www.polskieradio.pl/5/3/Artykul/1577113,Holandia-raporto-zyciu-w-obozach-dla-uchodzcow [2017-08-18].
Skibiński, A., ‘Geschiedenis van Polen in Breda vanaf 1944 tot 2005’ [History of Poland in Breda from 1944 to 2005], BCV Polonia Breda, October 2015, http://www.polonia-breda.nl/nl/weetjes/geschiedenis-van-polenin-breda [2017-08-18].
Scheffer, P., Immigrant Nations, Malden: Polity Press, 2010.
Tijden, A., ‘De Poolse bevrijders’ [Polish liberators], Nederland 2, 5 May 2013, https://anderetijden.nl/aflevering/150/De-Poolse-bevrijders [2017-10-13].
Thränhardt, D., Asylum Procedures in the Netherlands, Guterlsloh, 2016.
Zweiffel, Ł., Dynamika zmian społecznych w Holandii i ich odzwierciedlenie w systemie politycznym XX i XXI wieku [The dynamics of social change in the Netherlands and how it is reflected in the political system of the 20th and 21st centuries], Katowice, 2013.
Żelichowski, R., ‘Niderlandy’ [The Netherlands], in: K.A. Wojtaszczyk, J. Szymańska (eds), Uchodźcy w Europie—uwarunkowania, istota, następstwa [Refugees in Europe—conditions, essence, effects], Warsaw: Aspra, 2016.
‘150 duizend inwoners van Poolse herkomst’ [150 thousand inhabitants of Polish origin], CBS, 13 June 2016, https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2016/24/150-duizend-inwoners-van-poolse-herkomst [2017-08-19]ers-van-lse-herkomst [2017-10-13].


Empowering Roma People in Europe: Council of Europe’s Programs on Roma Mediation

Liczba wyświetleń: 875
This paper discusses European attempts at Roma integration, focusing on the Council of Europe (CoE) and its Roma-Mediation (ROMED) programs (both I and II) that use the tools of empowerment and cultural mediation on the local level to promote Roma participation in the decisionmaking process. The aim is to provide an overview of the emergence of Roma integration policies designed and implemented to fight the exclusion many Roma face across Europe and to situate CoE’s ROMED among recent developments. The paper is based on the literature that highlights Roma exclusion, on reviewing policy documents from international and European organizations and non-governmental bodies, and finally, on specific program publications.

Ch. Iliadis, ‘Empowering Roma People in Europe: Council of Europe’s Programs on Roma Mediation’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2017, pp 73-89.

Calin, R., Raykova, A. and C. Leucht, ROMED 2: Guidelines and resources for National and Local Facilitators, Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publications, 2016.
Catarci, M., ‘Intercultural Mediation as a strategy to facilitate relations between the School and Immigrant Families’, Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, vol. 19, no. 1, 2016, pp. 127-140.
Commissioner for Human Rights, Human rights of Roma and Travellers in Europe, Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publications, 2012.
Council of Europe, http://www.coe.int/en/web/portal/-/promoting-goodgovernance-and-roma-empowerment-at-local-level [2017-07-09].
Council of Europe, http://www.coe.int/ en/web/portal/roma [2017-08-20].
Council of Europe, The situation of Roma and Travellers in the context of rising extremism, xenophobia and the refugee crisis in Europe, resolution 403(2016).
Crowe, D., A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2007.
Crowe, D. and J. Kolsti (eds), The Gypsies of Eastern Europe, London: Routledge, 1991.
European Commission, Assessing the implementation of the EU framework, 27 June 2016, https://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1/2016/EN/1-2016-424-EN-F1-1.PDF [2017-09-18].
European Parliament, Resolution of 9 March 2011 on the EU strategy on Roma inclusion (2010/2276(INI)).
European Parliament, Resolution of 12 December 2013 on the progress made in the implementation of the National Roma Integration Strategies (2013/2924(RSP)).
Fesus, G. et al., ‘Policies to improve the health and well-being of Roma people: The European experience’, Health Policy, vol. 105, 2012, pp. 25-32.
Fundamental Rights Agency, Fundamental Rights Report, 2017, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2017.
Fundamental Rights Agency, Poverty and Employment: the situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2014.
Guy, W. (ed), Between past and future. The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe, Hertfordshire: University of Hertfordshire Press, 2001.
Liegeois, J., Developments in mediation, current challenges and the role of ROMED, Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publications, 2012.
Lowndes, V. and L. Pratchett, ‘Designing Democratic Institutions for Decentered Governance: The Council of Europe’s Acquis’, in: S. Griggs, A.J. Norval and H. Wagenaar (eds), Practices of Freedom, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 85-107.
Penasa, S., ‘From Protection to Empowerment through Participation: The Case of Trentino—a Laboratory for Small Groups’, Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, vol. 13, no. 2, 2014, pp. 3-53.
Phelan, M. and M. Mayte, ‘Interpreters and cultural mediators—different but complementary roles’, Translocations, vol. 6, no. 1, 2010.
Prina, F., ‘Introduction—National Minorities between Protection and Empowerment’, Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, vol. 13, no. 2, 2014, pp. 1-10.
Rus, C., Raykova, A. and C. Leucht, ROMED Trainer’s Handbook, Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing, 2011.
Schaefer-Rolffs, A., ‘Minority Politics in Practice: Protection and Empowerment in Danish-German Border Region’, Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, vol. 13, no. 2, 2014, pp. 80-103.
World Health Organization, Roma health mediation in Romania, Denmark: World Health Organisation, 2013.
Yuval-Davis, N., Wemyss, G. and K. Cassidy, ‘Introduction’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 40, no. 7, 2017, pp. 1047-1057.


De-bordering, Re-bordering and Integration of the Croatian Minority of Hungary

Liczba wyświetleń: 853
This paper describes the identity, assimilation and loyalty issues concerning the Croatian community in Hungary. In the regions of Central Europe and the northern Balkans, several Catholic southern Slavic ethnic groups have developed, each with their own identities, and throughout the 19th and 20th centuries most of them joined the national integration of Croats. However, this integration process has not been completed in all cases, and several groups remain the subjects of political games between Croatian-Serbian and Croatian-Serbian-Hungarian players. The paper analyzes the national integration process of mainly the Bunjevci and Bosniak groups of the Croatian community in Hungary in the new re-bordering period.

M. Kitanics, N. Pap, ‘De-bordering, Re-bordering and Integration of the Croatian Minority of Hungary’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2017, pp. 91-111.

Karácson, I., Evlia Cselebi török világutazó magyarországi utazásai 1660-1664 [Evlia Cselebi’s Turkish globe-trotter’s journeys in Hungary between 1660-1664], Budapest: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, 1904.
Kitanics, M., A Magyarországra irányuló horvát migráció a 16-18. században, (PhD-disszertáció) [Croatian migration targeting Hungary in the 16-18th century, (PhD dissertation)], Pécs: University of Pécs, 2014.
Kolnhofer, V., A gradistyei horvátok és a magyar-osztrák határkijelölés, (PhDdisszertáció) [Burgenland Croats and the designation of the Hungarian-Austrian border, (PhD dissertation)], Pécs: University of Pécs, 2008.
Kováts, V., ‘Szigetvári történeti néphagyományok I.’ [Historical folklores traditions of Szigetvar I.], in: Gy. Szabó (ed), A Janus Pannonius Múzeum Évkönyve 1961, Pécs, 1962, pp. 129-138.
Léphaft, Á. and P. Reményi, ‘Transforming borders—changing development potentials—the case of Vojvodina’, in: N. Drešković (ed), Zbornik Radova Trećeg Kongresa Geografa Bosne i Hercegovine: Book of Papers [of the] Third Congress of Geographers of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo: Geografsko drustvo u Federaciji Bosne i Hercegovine, 2014, pp. 295-302.
Pap, N., Hungary, the Balkans and the Mediterranean, Pécs: Publikon Books, 2013.
Pap, N., Kitanics, M., Gyenizse, P., Hancz, E., Bognár, Z., Tóth, T. and Z. Hámori, ‘Finding the Tomb of Suleiman the Magnificent in Szigetvar, Hungary: Historical, Geophysical and Archeological Investigations’, Die Erde, vol. 146, no. 4, 2015, pp. 289-303.
‘Siklóson járt Bosznia-Hercegovina főmuftija’ [The Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina visits Siklós], Siklósi Hírek, 29 April 2016.
Sokcsevits, D., ‘A horvátság csángói—a bunyevác népcsoport a horvát nemzeti integrációs folyamatban’ [The “Csango people” of the Croats—the ethnic group of Bunjevci in the Croatian national integration process], Limes, vol. 16, no. 3, 2003, pp. 67-82.
Szilágyi, J., Tukuljski Racovi—Egy rác népcsoport és rokonai múltja régi dokumentumok tükrében [Rascians who live on Tököl—The history of a Rascian ethnic group and its relatives, in view of old documents], Tököl: Private Edition, 2016.


The European Vector of Ukrainian Migration Policy

Liczba wyświetleń: 855
The subject of this paper is how cooperation with the European Union (EU) influences the formation of Ukraine’s migration policy. It gives a brief overview of the initial period of this cooperation, which started with the signing of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, and Ukraine (PCA). This paper closely examines the current state of Ukraine’s policy towards migration. It shows how the 2010 Action Plan on Visa Liberalization with the EU (VLAP) influenced the reform of migration management policies in Ukraine. It analyzes in greater detail the Concept of State Migration Policy of Ukraine (2011), the Law on External Labor Migration (2015) and the newly adopted Strategy of State Migration Policy of Ukraine for the Period up to 2025 (2017). The final part of this paper determines the major problems of Ukraine’s migration policy and prospects for its further development. This paper also contains recommendations how to improve the Action Plan on the Strategy of State Migration Policy implementation, currently in the process of elaboration.

H. Bazhenova, ‘The European Vector of Ukrainian Migration Policy’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2017, pp. 113-133.

Agreement between the European Community and Ukraine on the Facilitation of the Issuance of Visas, Official Journal of the European Union, L 332, 18 December 2007, pp. 68-76, http://mfa.gov.ua/mediafiles/sites/ukraineeu/files/on_the_facilitation_of_the_issuance_of_visas.pdf [2017-09-03].
‘Agreement on Readmission of Persons’, Mission of Ukraine to the European Union, http://ukraine-eu.mfa.gov.ua/en/ukraine-eu/justice/readmission[2017-09-03].
Association Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the One Part, and Ukraine, of the Other Part, Official Journal of the European Union, L 161, 29 May 2014, pp. 3-2137, http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/november/tradoc_155103.pdf [2017-09-19].
‘Asylum in the EU Member States. 1.2 million first time asylum seekers registered in 2016’, EUROSTAT Newsrelease, no. 46/2017, 16 March 2017, pp. 1-6, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/7921609/3-16032017-BP-EN.pdf/e5fa98bb-5d9d-4297-9168-d07c67d1c9e1 [2017-09-02].
Bitoulas, A., ‘Asylum applicants and first instance decisions on asylum applications: 2013’, EUROSTAT Data in focus, no. 3/2014, March 2014, pp. 1-25, https://emnbelgium.be/sites/default/files/publications/eurostat_2013_data_in_focus.pdf [2017-09-02].
Bitoulas, A., ‘Asylum applicants and first instance decisions on asylum applications: 2014’, EUROSTAT Data in focus, no. 3/2015, March 2015, pp. 1-25, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/4168041/6742650/KS-QA-15-003-EN-N.pdf/b7786ec9-1ad6-4720-8a1d-430fcfc55018 [2017-09-02].
Bordignon, M., Góis, P. and S. Moriconi, ‘Vision of Europe—The EU and The Refugee Crisis’, in: Vision Europe Summit 2016. Improving the Responses to the Migration and Refugee Crisis in Europe, Lisbon, 21-22 November 2016, pp. 70-93, http://bruegel.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/VisionEurope-PolicyPapersweb.pdf [2017-07-17].
‘Eastern Partnership’, Mission of Ukraine to the European Union, http://ukraine-eu.mfa.gov.ua/en/ukraine-eu/eu-policy/east-partnership [2017-09-19].
Ensuring Social Security Benefits for Ukrainian Migrant Workers: Policy Development and Future Challenges, Kyiv: ILO, 2012.
EU Action Plan on Justice and Home Affairs [План дій Європейського Союзу в галузі юстиції та внутрішніх справ], http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/994_494 [2017-09-04].
EU-Ukraine Visa Dialogue. Action Plan on Visa Liberalisation, Урядовий портал [Government Portal], pp. 1-12, http://www.kmu.gov.ua/control/publish/article?art_id=244813273 [2017-09-04].
‘EU visa-free travel for Ukraine comes into force June 11’, Unian Information Agency, 11 June 2017, https://www.unian.info/politics/1969116-euvisa-free-travel-for-ukraine-comes-into-force-jun-11.html [2017-09-02].
‘EUROSTAT Statistics Explained: Asylum statistics’, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Asylum_statistics [2017-07-17].
Jaroszewicz, M. and P. Kaźmierkiewicz, ‘Does Ukraine Have a Policy on Emigration? Transcending the State-Centered Approach’, Central and Eastern European Migration Review, vol. 3, no. 1, June 2014, pp. 11-26.
Kulchytska, K., Sushko, I. and A. Solodko, ‘Ukrainian Migration Policy Reform: Paving the Way for the EU-Ukraine Cooperation’, CEDOS Think Tank, 4 July 2016, Kyiv-Brussels, pp. 1-7, http://english.europewb.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Ukrainian-Migration-Policy-Reform.pdf [2017-09-19].
Lendel, M., ‘Migration of Ukrainians to Central European countries in the context of the Postmaidan internal and international crisis’, Public Policy and Administration, vol. 15, no. 4, 2016, pp. 549-563, https://www.mruni.eu/upload/iblock/f83/03_VPA_2016-15-4_LENDEL-Migration.pdf [2017-10-24].
Malynovs’ka, O.A. [Малиновська, О.А.], Міграційна політика Європейського союзу: виклики та уроки для України [European Union’s Migration Policy: Challenges and Lessons for Ukraine], Київ [Kyiv]: НІСД [NISS], 2014.
Malynovs’ka, O.A. [Малиновська, О.А.], ‘«Щодо подальшого удосконалення законодавства України у сфері трудової міграції». Аналітична записка’ [‘Regarding the Further Improvement of Ukrainian Legislation in the Field of Labor Migration’. Analytical note], Національний інститут стратегічних досліджень, Відділ соціальної політики [National Institute for Strategic Studies, Department of Social Policy], Серія «Соціальна політика» [Series ‘Social Policy’], no. 21, http://www.niss.gov.ua/articles/2123/ [2017-07-19].
Malynovs’ka, O.O. [Малиновська, О.О.], ‘«Щодо необхідності розробки і затвердження нової редакції Концепції державної міграційної політики України». Аналітична записка’ [‘Concerning the Necessity to Develop and Approve a New Edition of the Concept of State Migration Policy of Ukraine’. Analytical note], Національний інститут стратегічних досліджень, Відділ соціальної та демографічної безпеки [National Institute for Strategic Studies, Department of Social and Demographic Security], Серія «Соціальна політика» [Series ‘Social Policy’], no. 13, 2012, http://www.niss.gov.ua/articles/1762/ [2017-09-05].
Markov, I. [Марков І.], ‘Концепція міграційної політики України: гол у власні ворота’ [The Concept of Migration Policy of Ukraine: Own Goal], Радіо свобода [Radio Svoboda], 20 September 2011, https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/24332368.html [2017-09-05].
‘Migration Moods of the Ukrainians in Dynamics’, Соціалогічна група «Рейтинг» [Sociological Group ‘Rating’] http://ratinggroup.ua/en/research/ukraine/dinamika_migracionnyh_nastroeniy_ukraincev.html [2017-10-15].
‘MPC—Migration Profile: Ukraine. The Demographic-Economic Framework of Migration. The Legal Framework of Migration. The Socio-Political Framework of Migration. Report’, Migration Policy Centre, June 2013, http://www.migrationpolicycentre.eu/docs/migration_profiles/Ukraine.pdf [2017-10-24].
‘On Approval of the Action Plan on the Implementation of the Concept of State Migration Policy’. The Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine no 1058-р from 12.10.2011 [«Про затвердження Плану заходів з реалізації Концепції державної міграційної політики». Розпорядження Кабінету Міністрів України від 12.10.2011 N 1058-р], http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1058-2011-р [2017-09-05].
‘On Approval of the Strategy of Integration of Ukraine into the European Union’. The Decree of the President of Ukraine N 615/98 from 11.06.1998 [«Про затвердження Стратегії інтеграції України до Європейського Союзу». Указ Президента України від 11.06.1998 N 615/98], http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/615/98 [2017-09-03].
‘On Approval of the Strategy of State Migration Policy of Ukraine for the Period up to 2025’. The Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine no 482-р from 12.07.2017 [«Про схвалення Стратегії державної міграційної політики України на період до 2025 року». Розпорядження Кабінету Міністрів України від 12.07.2017 N 482-р], http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/482-2017-р/page#n10 [2017-09-05].
‘On External Labor Migration’. The Law of Ukraine no 761-VIII from 5.11.2015 [«Про зовнішню трудову міграцію». Закон України від 5.11.2015 N 761-VIII], http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/761-19?test=4/UMfPEGznhhHlM.ZiLDpGgCHI4X2s80msh8Ie6 [2017-09-19].
‘On the Concept of State Migration Policy’. The Decree of the President of Ukraine no 622/2011 from 30.05.2011 [«Про Концепцію Державної міграційної політики». Указ Президента України N 622/2011 від 30.05.2011], http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/622/2011 [2017-09-05].
‘On the Employment of the Population’. The Law of Ukraine no 5067-VI from 5.07.2012 [«Про зайнятість населення». Закон України від 5.07.2012 N 5067-VI], http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/5067-17?test=4/UMfPEGznhhHlM.ZiLDpGgCHI4X2s80msh8Ie6 [2017-09-05].
‘On the National Plan for the Implementation of the Action Plan on Visa Liberalization for Ukraine’. The Decree of the President of Ukraine N 494/2011 from 22.04.2011 «Про Національний план з виконання Плану дій щодо лібералізації Європейським Союзом візового режиму для України».
Указ Президента України від 22.04.2011 N 494/2011, http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/494/2011 [2017-09-04].
Pachocka, M., ‘The Eastern Partnership in Times of the Migrant and Refugee Crisis in the European Union’, in: C.E.P. Amaral, V. Cucerescu, G. Gabrichidze, I. Horga, A. Kruglashov, E. Latoszek and M. Pachocka, EU Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine: Through Cooperation Towards Integration, Chisinau-Chernivtsi-Tbilisi, 2017, pp. 17-31.
Pachocka, M., ‘The Foundations and the Institutional Framework of the EU and EAP States’ Relations in the Field of Migration and Asylum’, in: C.E.P. Amaral, V. Cucerescu, G. Gabrichidze, I. Horga, A. Kruglashov, E. Latoszek and M. Pachocka, EU Relations with Eastern Partners: Strategy, Opportunities and Challenges, Chisinau-Chernivtsi-Tbilisi, 2016, pp. 226-244.
Regional Gaps Analysis of Institutional Migration Management Capacities (Ukraine), Kyiv, 2015, http://europewb.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/RGA-NEW2.pdf [2017-10-23].
Sushko, I. [Сушко, І.], ‘Реформи в обмін на безвізовий режим: як Україна виконує План дій з візової лібералізації?’ [Reforms in Exchange for Visa-Free Travel: How Ukraine Pursues the Action Plan on Visa Liberalization?], Інститут економічних досліджень та політичних консультацій [Institute for Economic Research and Policy Consulting], Аналітична записка М2/2014 [Analytical note М2/2014], http://www.ier.com.ua/files//publications/Policy_Briefing_Series/PB_M02_2014.pdf [2017-10-24].
The Program of Ukraine’s Integration into the European Union [Програма інтеграції України до Європейського Союзу], http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/n0001100-00 [2017-09-04].
‘The Rada Adopted Another “Visa-Free” Law—On External Labor Migration’ [Рада прийняла ще один «безвізовий» закон—про зовнішню трудову міграцію], Сьогодні [Siogodni], 5 November 2015, http://ukr.segodnya.ua/politics/pnews/rada-prinyala-eshche-odin-bezvizovyy-zakon-o-vneshney-trudovoy-migracii-664691.html [2017-09-05].
‘Ukraine-EU Relations’, Mission of Ukraine to the European Union, http://ukraine-eu.mfa.gov.ua/en/ukraine-eu/relations [2017-09-03].
‘Visa Facilitation Agreement’, Mission of Ukraine to the European Union, http://ukraine-eu.mfa.gov.ua/en/ukraine-eu/justice/visa-agreement [2017-09-03].


Russian Language as a Tool of Geopolitical Influence

Liczba wyświetleń: 938
After the breakup of the USSR, sovereign initiatives revitalized ethnic, religious and national origins. The basic legitimation strategy of the newly created states became the merger of the so-called “new ethnicity” with strategic descent, then de-Russification. In the 21st century, these initiatives have been hampered and Russian language has again become a highly positioned tool for geopolitical influence in the region. The aim of this article is to analyze the catalog of language influence tools in the soft power of the Russian Federation and to show the importance of using this instrument in the geopolitical relations of the region.

J. Olędzka, ‘Russian Language as a Tool of Geopolitical Influence’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2017, pp. 135-163.

About the State National Policy Strategy The Russian Federation for the Period up to 2025 [О Стратегии государственной национальной политики Российской Федерации на период до 2025 года], http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody&link_id=0&nd=102161949 [2017-08-18].
Antonowicz, M., ‘Polskojęzyczny „Ruski Mir” na Litwie’, Eastbook, 9 January 2017, http://www.eastbook.eu/2017/01/09/polskojezyczny-ruski-mir-nalitwie/[2017-10-24].
Baluk, W., ‘Ukraińska polityka językowa w kontekście polityki narodowościowej i przewidywane zmiany’ [Ukrainian Language Policy in the Context of National Policy and Anticipated Change], in: J. Albin and J. Kupczak (eds), Z badań nad współczesną problematyką państw Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej [Research on Contemporary Issues of Central and Eastern European Countries], Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2000, pp. 47-76.
Belta, ‘Лукашенко поручил проработать вопрос о создании вуза с белорусским языком обучения’ [Lukashenka Instructed to Study the Issue of Establishing a University With the Belarusian Language of Instruction], Belta.by, 3 February 2017, http://www.belta.by/president/view/lukashenko-poruchil-prorabotat-vopros-o-sozdanii-vuza-s-belorusskimjazykom-obuchenija-231390-2017/ [2017-08-16].
Bieleń, S., Tożsamość międzynarodowa Federacji Rosyjskiej [International Identity of the Russian Federation], Warsaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA-JR, 2006.
Borishpolec, K.P. [Боришполец, К.П.], ‘Механизмы взаимодействия государства с национальными диаспорами’ [Mechanisms of Cooperation Between the State and the National Diaspora], Ежегодник ИМИ [Yearbook IMI], 2012, pp. 79-86.
Borisova, N. [Борисова, Н.], ‘Политизация языка и языковая политика в этнических территориальных автономиях’ [Language Politicization and Language Policy in Ethnic Territorial Autonomy], Мировая экономика и международные отношения [World Economics and International Relations], vol. 60, no. 9, 2016, pp. 67-75.
Brubaker, R., ‘Accidental Diasporas and External “Homelands” in Central and Eastern Europe: Past and Present’, in: E. Ben-Rafael and Y. Sternberg (eds), Transnationalism: Diasporas and the Advent of a New (Dis)order, Leiden-Boston: BRILL, 2009, pp. 461-482.
Brubaker, R., ‘Language, Religion and the Politics’, Nations and Nationalism, vol. 19, no. 1, 2013, pp. 1-20.
Brubaker, R., Nacjonalizm inaczej. Struktura narodowa i kwestie narodowe w Nowej Europie [Nationalism in Different Perspective. National Structure and National Issues in New Europe], Kraków: PWN, 1998, pp. 71-89.
Byzov, L. [Бызов, Л.], Контуры новорусской трансформации. Социокультурнуые аспекты формирования современной российской нации и эволюция социально- политической системы [Outline of the New-Russian Transformation. Socio-cultural Aspects of the Formation of the Modern Russian Nation and the Evolution of the Socio-political System], Москва [Moscow]: РОССПЭН [ROSSPEN], 2013.
Chudowski, V., ‘Imperialism to Realism. The Role of the West in Russian Foreign Policy Towards Ukraine’, in: G.P. Herd and J.D.P. Moroney (eds), Security Dynamics in the Former Soviet Bloc, London: Routledge, 2013.
Cordell, K., Agarin, T. and A.R. Osipov (eds), Institutional Legacies of Communism: Change and Continuities in Minority Protection, London-New York: Routledge, 2013.
Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 683 of December 31, 2015 About the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation [Указ № 683 Президента Российской Федерации от 31.12.2015 г. О Стратегии национальной безопасности Российской Федерации], http://kremlin.ru/acts/bank/40391 [2017-08-18].
Decree No. 640 of the President of the Russian Federation of November 30, 2016 on Approval of the Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation [Указ № 640 Президента Российской Федерации от 30.11.2016 г. ‘Обутверждении Концепции внешней политики Российской Федерации’], http://kremlin.ru/acts/bank/41451 [2017-08-18].
Decree No. 646 of the President of the Russian Federation of 05.12.2016 on the Approval of the Doctrine of Information Security of the Russian Federation [Указ № 646 Президента Российской Федерации от 05.12.2016 г. Об утверждении Доктрины информационной безопасности Российской Федерации], http://kremlin.ru/acts/bank/41460 [2017-08-16].
Domańska, M., Uwarunkowania procesów integracyjnych i dezintegracyjnych na obszarze poradzieckim [Conditions of Integration and Disintegration Processes in the Post-Soviet Area], Warszawa: Aspra, 2013.
Horska, N., Aktywność narodowa mniejszości rosyjskiej na Ukrainie (1991-2004) [National Activity of the Russian Minority in Ukraine (1991-2004)], Toruń: Europejskie Centrum Edukacyjne [European Education Center], 2009, pp. 266-285.
Ivlevs, A., ‘Minorities on the Move? Assessing Post-enlargement Emigration Intentions of Latvia’s Russian Speaking Minority’, The Annals of Regional Science, vol. 51, no. 1, 2013, pp. 33-52.
Karnaukh, A., Pomiędzy ukraińskością a sowieckością. Ukraińcy, Rosjanie i Bułgarzy na Zaporożu [Between Ukrainian and Soviet Identity. Ukrainians, Russians and Bulgarians on Zaporozhye], Kraków: Nomos, 2015.
Karolak-Michalska, M., ‘O polityce Rosji wobec swoich rodaków żyjących na obszarze poradzieckim’ [Russia’s Policy Towards its Compatriots Living in the Post-Soviet Area], Studia Gdańskie. Wizje i rzeczywistość [Gdańsk Studies. Visions and Reality], no. XIII, 2016, pp. 231-242.
Katul’skij, E.D. [Катульский, Е.Д.], ‘Демографическое развитие России как зеркало реформ переходного периода’ [Demographic Development of Russia as a Reflection of Transitional Reform], Безопасность [Security], no. 3-4, 1998, pp. 75-85.
Kolosov, V.A. [Колосов, В.А.], ‘Российская геополитика: традиционные концепции и современные вызовы’ [Russian Geopolitics: Traditional Concepts and Contemporary Challenges], Общественные науки и современность [Social Sciences and Modernity], no. 3, 1996, pp. 86-94.
Kuczyńska-Zonik, A., ‘Russian-speaker NGOs in the Baltic States’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, vol. 15, no. 3, 2017, pp. 165-183.
Kudors, A., ‘Russian Soft Power and Non-Military Influence: The View from Latvia’, in: M. Winnerstig (ed), Tools of Destabilization. Russian Soft Power and Non-military Influence in the Baltic States, Stockholm: FOI, 2014, pp. 96-98.
Laruèlle, M., The “Russian World”. Russia’s Soft Power and Geopolitical Imagination, Washington: Centre on Global Interests, 2015.
Lebedeva, M.M. [Лебедева, М.М.], ‘Акторы современной мировой политики: тренды развития’ [Actors of Contemporary World Affairs], Вестник МГИМО Университета [Bulletin of MGIMO University], no. 1, 2013, pp. 38-42.
Mazur, M., Polityka narodowościowa Republiki Kazachstanu (1991-2007) [National Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (1991-2007)], Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, 2012.
Musiał, M., ‘Język państwowy jako narzędzie ochrony politycznej suwerenności państwa’ [State Language as a Tool to Protect the Political Sovereignty of the State], in: S. Wojciechowski (ed), Europejskie dylematy i wyzwania [European Dilemmas and Challenges], Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe INPiD UAM, 2004, pp. 181-192.
Nemenskij, O. [Неменский, O.], ‘Русский мир и русская земля: территориальный аспект русской идентичности’ [Russian World and Russian Land: Territorial Aspect of Russian Identity], in: С. Пантелеев [S. Panteleev], Русская идентичность на постсоветском пространстве [Russian Identity in Post-Soviet Space], Москва [Moscow]: Инфо-Рос [INFOROS], 2008.
Nye, J.S., Przyszłość siły [The Future of Power], Warszawa: PWN, 2012.
Nye, J.S., Soft Power. Jak osiągnąć sukces w polityce światowej [The Means To Success In World Politics], Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne, 2007.
Panarin, A.S. [Панарин, А.С.], ‘Россия в Евразии: геополитические вызовы и цивилизационные ответы’ [Russia and Eurasia: Geopolitical Challenges and Civilizational Responses], Вопрocы философии [Questions of Philosophy], no. 12, 1994, pp. 19-32.
Patyna, M., ‘Problem integracji Rosjan w Estonii w latach 1989-2005’ [Problem of Russian Integration in Estonia in 1989-2005], Wschodnioznawstwo, no. 1, 2007, pp. 115-138.
Patten, A., ‘Political Theory and Language Policy’, Political Theory, vol. 29, no. 5, 2001, pp. 691-715.
Piskorska, B., ‘Soft power jako efekt ewolucji rozumienia siły we współczesnym ładzie międzynarodowym’ [Soft Power as a Result of the Evolution of Understanding of Force in Contemporary International Order], in: R. Czulda, R. Łoś and J. Reginia-Zacharski (eds), NATO wobec wyzwań współczesnego świata [NATO Facing the Challenges of the Modern World], Warszawa-Łódź, 2013, pp. 376-377.
Potulski, J., Geopolityka w świecie ponowoczesnym [Geopolitics in the Postmodern World], Częstochowa: Instytut Geopolityki, 2010.
Potulski, J., Społeczno-kulturowy kontekst aktywności międzynarodowej Federacji Rosyjskiej [Socio-cultural Context of International Activity of the Russian Federation], Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo UG, 2008.
Priedīte, A., ‘Surveying Language Attitudes and Practices in Latvia’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, vol. 26, no. 5, 2005, pp. 409-424.
Porozhev, A.A. [Прохожев, А.А.] and Н.И. Турко [N.I. Turko], Геополитические факторы обеспечения безопасности государства [Geopolitical Factors of Ensuring State Security], Москва [Moscow]: РАГС [RAGS], 1995.
President of Russia [Президент России], ‘Президент утвердил Концепцию государственной миграционной политики Российской Федерации на период до 2025 года’ [The President Approved the Concept of State Migration Policy of the Russian Federation Until 2025], Документы [Dokumenty], http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/15635 [2017-08-18].
Prestowitz, C.V., Morse, R.A. and A. Tonelson, Powernomics. Economics and Strategy After the Cold War, Economic Strategy Institute, Washington: Madison Books, 1991, pp. 25-31.
Reire, G., ‘Euro-Atlantic Values and Russia’s Propaganda in the Euro-Atlantic Space’, Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej, vol. 13, no. 4, 2015, pp. 9-28.
Russian World, http://www.russkiymir.ru/ [2017-08-13].
Skachkova, I. [Скачкова, И.], ‘Языковая политика и языковое планирование: определение понятий’ [Language Policy and Planning: Defining of Concepts], Политическая лингвистика [Political Linguistics], vol. 1, no. 51, 2015.
Sorokin, K.E. [Сорокин, К.Э.], Геополитика современности и геостратегия России [Geopolitics of Modern Times and Geostrategy of Russia], Москва [Moscow]: РОССПЭН [ROSSPEN], 1996.
Strategy for Countering Extremism in the Russian Federation for the Period up to 2025 [Стратегия противодействия экстремизму в Российской Федерации до 2025 года], http://legalacts.ru/doc/strategija-protivodeistvija-ekstremizmu-v-rossiiskoi-federatsii-do/ [2017-08-18].
Strategy for International Youth Cooperation of Countries Participating in the Commonwealth of Independent States for the Period up to 2020 [Стратегия международного молодёжного сотрудничества государств—участников Содружества Независимых Государств на период до 2020 года], http://kremlin.ru/supplement/812 [2017-08-17].
Sułek, M., ‘O potęgonomii i potęgometrii’ [The Science of the Power of the State and the Science of Shaping and Measuring this Power], in: Z. Lach and J. Wendt (eds), Geopolityka. Elementy teorii, wybrane metody i badania [Geopolitics. Elements of Theory, Selected Methods and Research], Instytut Geopolityki: Częstochowa, 2010, pp. 57-68.
Szeptycki, A., Ukraina wobec Rosji. Studium zależności [Ukraine and Russia. The Study of Coherence], Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 2015.
Szul, R., Język, naród, państwo [Language, Nation, State], Warsaw: PWN, 2009.
De Tangi, A. [Де Танги, А.], Великая Миграция: Россия и Россиянине после падения железного занавеса [Great Migration: Russia and the Russians After the Fall of the Iron Curtain], Москва [Moscow]: РОССПЭН [ROSSPEN], 2012.
Tema, ‘Рийгикогу принял закон: обращаться в суд можно будет и на русском языке’ [The Riigikogu passed the law: it will be possible to apply to the court in Russian], Tema.ee, 15 December 2016, http://tema.ee/2016/12/15/riygikogu-prinyal-zakon-obrashhatsya-v-sud-mozhno-budet-i-na-russkom-yazyike/ [2017-10-24].
The Doctrine of Information Security of the Russian Federation [Доктрина информационной безопасности Российской], http://www.ng.ru/politics/2000-09-15/0_infodoctrine.html [2017-08-16].
The President’s Address to the Federal Assembly. Transcript [Послание президента Федеральному Собранию. Стенограмма], http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=118549 [2017-08-18].
Trenin, D., The End of Eurasia: Russia on the Border Between Geopolitics and Globalization, Moscow: Carnegie Endowment, 2001.
Wierzbicki, A., Etniczność i narody w Europie i Azji Centralnej. Perspektywa teoretyczna i egzemplifikacyjna [Ethnicity and Nations in Europe and Central Asia. Theoretical and Exemplifying Perspectives], Warsaw: Wydział Dziennikarstwa i Nauk Politycznych, 2014.
Wierzbicki, A., Etnopolityka w Azji Centralnej. Między wspólnotą etniczną a obywatelską [Ethnopolitics in Central Asia. Between Ethnic and Civic Community], Warsaw: Dom Wydawniczy ELIPSA, 2008.
Wierzbicki, A. and M. Karolak-Michalska, Mniejszość rosyjska w etnopolityce państw Europy Wschodniej i Azji Centralnej [Russian Minority in the Ethnopolitics of States of Eastern Europe and Central Asia], Warsaw: Wydział Dziennikarstwa i Nauk Politycznych Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 2016.
Włodkowska-Bagan, A., Rywalizacja mocarstw na obszarze poradzieckim [The Rivalry of the Powers in the Post-Soviet Area], Warsaw: Difin, 2013.
Yuhas, A. and R. Jalabi, ‘Ukraine’s revolution and Russia’s occupation of Crimea: how we got here’, The Guardian, 5 March 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/mar/05/ukraine-russia-explainer [2017-08-01].


Russian-speaker NGOs in the Baltic States

Liczba wyświetleń: 880
The aim of this paper is to explore the issue of Russian-speaker nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the Baltic states that are engaged in the promotion of Russian culture and language as well as in the representation of Russian-speakers’ rights. As many surveys and much research concerning the Russian-speaking diaspora in the Baltic states have been conducted, it is important to indicate the characteristics of these NGOs as an essential factor of articulating the diaspora’s interests. In the empirical analysis, the author will use quantitative and qualitative measures of these organizations’ form, structure, activities, and members. As a result, it is argued that these NGOs in the Baltic states are moderately successful. While it is an opportunity for the Russian-speaking diaspora to mediate between society, the state authorities and the international community, these NGOs have influenced the consolidation of the Russian-speaking population in the Baltic states only to a small extent. Additionally, under some circumstances, these NGOs can be considered to comprise a Russian soft power tool of influence in the Baltic states.

A. Kuczyńska-Zonik, ‘Russian-speaker NGOs in the Baltic States’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2017, pp. 165-183.

AALEP, Russian GONGOs and NGOs, Association of Accredited Public Policy Advocates to the European Union (AALEP), 10 July 2016, http://www.aalep.eu/russian-gongos-and-ngos [2017-08-16].
Aidarov, A. and W. Drechsler, ‘Estonian Russification of Non-Russian Ethnic Minorities in Estonia?’, Trames, vol. 17, no. 2, 2013, pp. 103-128.
Auers, D., Comparative Politics and Government of the Baltic States, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2015.
Birckenbach, H.-M., ‘Half Full or Half Empty?’, The OSCE Mission to Estonia and its Balance Sheet 1993-1999, ECMI Working Paper, no. 6, 2000.
Buzayev, V., Legal and social situation of the Russian-speaking minority in Latvia, Averti-R, SIA, 2013.
Buzayev, V. [Бузаев, В.] (ed), Правовое и фактическое положение национальных меньшинств в Латвии [Legal and actual situation of national minorities in Latvia], Riga: Averti-R, SIA, 2015.
ERR, ‘Over 40 Russian-funded NGOs operate in Baltic states’, News ERR, 7 September 2015, http://news.err.ee/116670/over-40-russian-fundedngos-operate-in-baltic-states [2017-08-16].
Estonian Internal Security Service, Estonian Internal Security Service Annual Review 2016, Tallinn, 2016, https://www.kapo.ee/en/content/annual-reviews.html [2017-08-17].
Estonian Internal Security Service, Estonian Internal Security Service Annual Review 2008, Tallinn, 2008, https://www.kapo.ee/en/content/annualreviews.html [2017-08-17].
Frėjutė-Rakauskienė, M. [Фреюте-Ракаускене, M.], ‘Неправительственные организации русских Литвы: основные социальные характеристики’ [Main Social Characteristics of Non-governmental Organizations of Lithuania’s Russians], Etniškumo studijos [Ethnic Studies], Special issue: Русские в Балтийском регионе: меньшинство и государство [Russians in the Baltic region: the minority and the state], vol. 2, 2007, pp. 93-115.
Goble, P., ‘Ethnic Russians In Baltic Countries “Love Russia but Don’t Consider It Their Home’’’, The Interpreter, 30 December 2014, http://www.interpretermag.com/ethnic-russians-in-baltic-countries-love-russia-butdont-consider-it-their-home/ [2017-08-17].
Government of the Republic of Lithuania, Department of National Minorities [Tautinių mažumų departamentas prie Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybės], Tautinių mažumų organizacijos, 2016 [National Minorities Organizations, 2016], Vilnius, 2016.
Goble, P., ‘Latvian MP: Moscow using Russian organizations to destabilize Latvia’, Euromaidan Press, 9 March 2015, http://euromaidanpress.com/2015/03/09/latvian-mp-moscow-using-russian-organizations-todestabilize-latvia/#arvlbdata [2017-08-16].
Jansons, A., ‘Ethnopolitics in Latvia: Ethnopolitical. Activities of State Institutions and Non-governmental Organizations and their Influence on the Social Integration Process’, Ethnicity Studies, 2003, pp. 124-133.
Kaldur, K., Sutrop I. and K. Kallas, Political participation of third country nationals on national and local level. Country Report of Estonia, Institute of Baltic Studies (IBS), 2011, https://www.ibs.ee/wp-content/uploads/IBS_ESTONIA_country_report.pdf [2017-08-16].
Kallas, K., ‘Claiming the diaspora: Russia’s compatriot policy and its reception by Estonian-Russian population’, Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, vol. 15, no. 3, 2016, pp. 1-25.
Kasatkina, N. and T. Leončikas, Lietuvos etninių grupių adaptacija: kontekstas ir eiga [Adaptation of ethnic groups in Lithuania: Context and process], Vilnius: Socialinių tyrimų institutas, Eugrimas, 2003.
Kuczyńska-Zonik, A., ‘Antidiplomacy in Russia’s Policies Regarding Russian-Speakers in the Baltic states’, Baltic Journal of Politic Science, no. 5, 2016, pp. 89-104, DOI: https://doi.org/10.15388/BJPS.2016.5.10338.
Matulionis, A. [Матулионис, A.] and M. Frėjutė-Rakauskienė, [M. Фреюте-Ракаускене], ‘Идентичность русской этнической группы и ее выражение в Литве и Латвии. Сравнительный аспект’ [Identity of the Russian ethnic group and its expression in Lithuania and Latvia. Comparative aspect], Мир России. Социология. Этнология [The Russian world: Sociology. Ethnology], Москва [Moscow]: Национальный исследовательский университет [National Research University], vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, pp. 107-109.
Poppe, E. and L. Hagendoorn, ‘Types of Identification among Russians in the “Near Abroad”’, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 53, no. 1, 2001, pp. 57-71.
Report by Maksim Nikolajev (NGO “Russian School of Estonia”) at OSCE Human Dimension Implementation Meeting (HDIM), Warsaw, 1 October 2015.
Resolution of the 6th conference of NGOs of Russia’s compatriots in Latvia, 24 August 2013.
Russian School of Estonia, Statement by NGO “Russian School in Estonia”, 29 September 2014.
Security Police [Drošības policija], Publiskais pārskats par Drošības policijas darbību 2016.gadā [Public Report on Security Police Activity Operation in 2016], Riga, 2017, http://www.dp.gov.lv/lv/?rt=documents&ac=download&id=18 [2017-08-17].
State Security Department of the Republic of Lithuania, National Security Threat Assessment, Vilnius, 2017, http://www.vsd.lt/Files/Documents/636265688721000000.pdf [2017-08-17].
Struberga, S., ‘Non-governmental Organizations: Source for Inclusion or exclusion?’, in: Ž. Ozoliņa (ed), Societal Security. Inclusion-Exclusion Dilemma. A portrait of the Russian-speaking community in Latvia, Zinātne, 2016, pp. 95-123.
Tatkalo, N. [Таткало, Н.], Консолидация молодых соотечественников за рубежом как инструмент «мягкой силы» России [Consolidation of the young compatriots abroad as an instrument of Russia’s soft power], Всемирный координационный совет российских соотечественников проживающих за рубежом [The World Congress of Compatriots Living Abroad], 23 January 2017, http://vksrs.com/publications/konsolidatsiyamolodykh-sootechestvennikov-za-rubezhom-kak-instrument-myagkoysily-rossii/ [2017-08-18].
USAID, The 2012 CSO Sustainability Index for Central and East Europe and Eurasia, 2012.
USAID, The 2015 CSO Sustainability Index for Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia, 2015.
Vojtíšková, V., Novotný, V., Schmid-Schmidsfelden, H. and K. Potapova, The Bear in Sheep’s Clothing. Russia’s Government-Funded Organizations in the EU, Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies, 2016.
Volkov, V., ‘“The Russian Community” as a Means of Self-identification of Russians in Latvia’, Proceedings of the Institute for European Studies Tallinn University of Technology, no. 6, 2009, pp. 104-123.
Zhdanok, T. [Жданок, Т.], Европейский дневник [European diary], Riga: Averti-R, 2009.


Lithuanian Students at Stefan Batory University: Creating New Lithuanian Elites in Interwar Vilnius

Liczba wyświetleń: 866
This paper explores the position of the Lithuanian students at the Polish Stefan Batory University (SBU) during the period of 1919-1939 in Vilnius. The author analyzes the development of the Lithuanian historical narrative on this question and the activity of the Lithuanian Academic Union (LAU). The main goal of this paper is to show the activity of the Lithuanian students, and their place both in the academic community of the university and in the society of the Lithuanian national minority in interwar Poland.

T. Błaszczak, ‘Lithuanian Students at Stefan Batory University: Creating New Lithuanian Elites in Interwar Vilnius’, Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2017, pp. 185-206.

Cicėnas, J., Vilnius tarp audrų [Vilnius between the storms], Chicago: Terra, 1953.
Gaigalaitė, A., ‘Lietuvos valstybės pagalba Vilnijos lietuvių organizacijoms 1922-1928 metais’ [Support of the Lithuanian State to the Lithuanian Lithuanian Students at Stefan Batory University: Creating New Lithuanian Elites in Interwar Vilnius organizations in Vilnius region 1922-1928], Lietuvos istorijos metraštis, 1994, pp. 52-72.
Gasiutytė, A., ‘Lietuvių studentų sąjunga Stepono Batoro universitete’ [Lithuanian Students’ Union at Stefan Batory univeristy], in: Lietuvių studentų korporacijos tarpukariu [Lithuanian Student Fraternities in Inter-War Period], Vilnius: Diemedžio leidykla, 2013, pp. 96-114.
Juknevičius, A., Atsiminimai [Memoirs], Vilnius: Lietuvos nacionalinis muziejus, 2016.
Juzefovičius, R., ‘Vilniaus lietuvių studentų kultūrinė veikla visuomenėje 1928-1940 m.’ [Cultural activities of Vilnius Lithuanian students in the society in 1928-1940], Lituanistica, vol. 60, no. 2(96), 2014, pp. 79-90.
Karosas, J., Mówią kamienie Wilna [The stones of Vilnius spekas], Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza, 1968.
Lapinskienė, A., Vilniaus Lietuvių literatūra 1920-1940 [The literature of Vilnius Lithuanians 1920-1940], Vilnius: Lietuvos literatūros ir tautosakos institutas, 2008.
Končius, I., ‘Stepono Batoro universitetas Vilniaus universitetas Vilniuje. Keli vaizdeliai’ [Stefan Batory Univeristy Vinius University in Vilnius. Some pictures] , Tautos Praeitis—The Past of a Nation, 1965, vol. II, b. 2(6), pp. 143-160.
Kurauskaitė, M., ‘Pažangūs lietuviai studentai marksizmo-leninizmo idėjų skleidėjai Vilniaus Stepono Batoro Univeristete 1929-1933’ [The progressive lithuanian students—spreaders of marxist-leninist ideas at the SBU 1929-1933], Lietuvos TSR Aukštųjų mokyklų mokslo darbai, Istorija, vol. XXI, no. 1, 1981, pp. 54-58.
Mackevičius, R., ‘Mūsų inteligentai’ [Our intelligetsia], Lietuviškas baras, no. 1, 1936, pp. 3-6.
Mackonis, R., Amžiaus liudininko užrašai [Notes of the bystander], Vilnius: Lietuvos rašytojų sąjungos leidykla, 2001.
Mačiulis, D. and D. Staliūnas, Vilnius—Lietuvos sostinė: problema tautinės valstybės projekte (XIX a pabaiga—1940 m.) [Vilnius—the Capital of Lithuania: the question in the project of national state (late 19th ct.—1940)], Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos instituto leidykla, 2015.
Makowski, B., Litwini w Polsce 1921-1939 [Lithuanians in Poland 1921-1939], Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1986.
Maldžiūnas, V., Išaugau Vilnijoj. Atsiminimai [Grown up in Vilnius region. Memoirs], Kaunas: Spindulys, 1996.
Maminskaitė-Kulbokienė, V., Gyvenimo vingiuos [In the meanders of Life], Chicago 1992.
Miciutė, O., ‘Vilniaus Lietuvių teatras’ [Lithuanian theatre in Vilnius], in: R. Kazlauskaitė (ed), Vilniaus skrajojamas teatras „Vaidila“, Vilnius, 2001.
Norkūnas, P., Atsiminimai [Memoirs], Vilnius: Vilniaus medicinos draugija, 2002.
Opacki, Z., ‘Reaktywowanie czy powstanie? Dyskusje wokół utworzenia Uniwersytetu Stefana Batorego w Wilnie w latach 1918-1919’ [Reactivation or creation? Discussions over the establishment of Stefan Batory Univeristy in Vilnius 1918-1919], Kwartalnik Historyczny, CV, vol. 3, 1998, pp. 49-64.
Srebrakowski, A., ‘Litwa i Litwini na Uniwersytecie Stefana Batorego’ [Lithuania and Lithuanians on Stefan Batory Univeristy], in: J. Marszałek-Kawa and W.K. Roman (eds), Stosunki polsko-litewskie wczoraj i dziś [Polish-Lithuanian Relations yesterday and today], Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, 2009, pp. 121-122.
Sužiedėlis, S., ‘Lituanistika Stepono Batoro universitete Vilniuje’ [Lithuanian Studies at the Stefan Batory Univeristy in Vilnius], Laiškai lietuviams, http://laiskailietuviams.lt/index.php/1979m-11-gruodis/4977-lituanistikastepono-batoro-universitete-vilniuje [2017-10-16].
Ściśle tajny memoriał Wojewody Wileńskiego Bociańskiego z dnia 11 lutego 1936 r. [Top Secret Memorial of Vilnius Voivode Bociański dated 11th of February 1936], Kaunas: V. Vaitkevičius, 1939.
Šlapelytė-Sirutienė, G., Vilnijos atgarsai [Echoes of the Vilnius region], Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijos leidybų institutas, 2004.
Šapoka, G. (ed), Lenkinimo politika Vilnijoje. Straipsniai ir dokumentai [Politics of polonization in Vilnius region. Articles and documents], Vilnius: Žaltvykslė, 2009.
Šapoka, G. (ed), Vilniaus krašto lenkinimas [The polonization of Vilnius region], Punskas: „Aušros“ leidykla, 2015.
Weeks, T., Vilnius between Nations 1795-2000, Nothern Illinois University Press, 2015.
Venclova, T., ‘Four Centuries of Enlightenment: a Historic View of the University of Vilnius 1579-1979’, Lituanus-Lithuanian Quarterly Journal Of Arts And Sciences, vol. 27, no. 1, Summer 1981, http://www.lituanus.org/1981_2/81_2_01.htm [2017-10-16].
Vilniaus universiteto istorija 1803-1940 [The History of Vilnius university1803-1940], vol. 2, Vilnius: Mokslas, 1977.
Žalvaris, ‘Vilniaus Lietuvių Studentų Sąjungos dešimtmetį minint’ [Celebrating the 10th anniversary of the Union of Lithuanian students in Vilnius], Lietuviškas baras, no. 3, 1935, pp. 3-10.